Azevedo, R., & Hadwin, A. F. (2005). Scaffolding self-regulated learning and metacognition: Implications for the design of computer-based scaffolds. Instructional Science, 33, 367–379.
The last decades there is an emphasis in educational research in scaffolding students’ self- regulated learning and metacognition in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs). Learning environments such as intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have shown important results in scaffolding student’s learning in well-structured tasks like algebra. Advances in technology and use of open-ended learning environments pose educational, and design challenges in the design of traditional conceptions of scaffolding. Azevedo and Hadwin, in their paper “Scaffolding self-regulated learning and metacognition: Implications for the design of computer-based scaffolds” (2005) synthesize the work of five articles to present a summary of these challenges in scaffolding self-regulated learning and metacognition. In addition, they note implications for the design of computer-based scaffolds and present how each of the five research studies addresses these issues.
A summary of Key Points
- There are general and specific issues related to scaffolding self-regulated learning and metacognition.
- Types of learning that are supported through scaffolding “may support the development of declarative, procedural, conceptual or metacognitive knowledge” (p.370).
- The source of scaffolded support can be written-based prompts (Puntabekar & Stylianou, 2005), static scaffolds (Choi, Land, &Turgeon, 2005), web-based pedagogical tools with human instructor support (Dabbaugh & Kitsantas, 2005), and fixed scaffolds and human regulating agent (Azevedo, Cromley, Winters, Moos & Greene, 2005).
- Diagnosis assists decisions in individualizing scaffold support.
According to the authors, adaptive scaffolding can assist in the creation of sophisticated mental models, increase declarative knowledge and increase the use of SRL strategies. The following adaptive scaffoldings are noted in the paper:
- Online guidance (Choi et al., 2005)
- Separate WBPTs support different self-regulatory strategies (Dabbaugh et al., 2005).
- Over time teachers decrease and students increase their participation in self-regulatory discussions (Hadwin, Wozney & Pantin, 2005).
- What are the challenges in scaffolding self-regulated learning and metacognition in WBPTs?
- What types of learning are supported through scaffolding?
- How adaptive scaffolding can assist in individualized students’ needs?
- Azevedo, R., Cromley, J.G., Winters, F.I., Moos, D.C. & Greene, J.A. (2005). Adaptive human scaffolding facilitates adolescents’ self-regulated learning with hypermedia. Instructional Science 33(5–6): 381–412
- Choi, I., Land, S.M. & Turgeon, A.Y. (2005). Scaffolding peer-questioning strategies to facilitate metacognition during online small group discussion. Instructional science 33(5–6): 483– 511
- Dabbagh, N. & Kitsantas, A. (2005). Using web-based pedagogical tools as scaffolds for self-regulated learning. Instructional Science 33(5–6): 513–540
- Hadwin, A.F., Wozney, L. & Pantin, O. (2005). Scaffolding the appropriation of self-regulatory activity; A socio-cultural analysis of changes in teacher-student discourse about a graduate research portfolio. Instructional Science 33(5–6): 413–450
- Puntambekar, S. & Stylianou, A. (2005). Designing navigation support in hypertext systems based on navigation patterns. Instructional Science 33(5–6): 451–481