As we saw in the chapter scenario, information sources are often identified by traditional formats: is the information found in a book, a scholarly journal article, or a magazine or newspaper article? Outside of these typically being classified as secondary sources (particularly in the humanities), these traditional formats have a few other commonalities: they all tend to be trustworthy; they go through some sort of publication and review process; and they all are fixed formats—that is, they can’t be updated without creating a whole new version or edition of the resource. They can also be available as print (physical) or digital (online). So, what makes them different or unique?


Three books on a shelf

You are probably familiar with this type of information source and it might just be the first kind of resource you think of when you think of libraries. Books are different than the other resources in a few ways: They can explore and present a topic in breadth and depth much easier than a magazine or newspaper. You may find some special magazine issues or journal issues that are devoted to a theme, but the coverage will still be limited compared to a book’s possibility. Books can be written by a single author or multiple authors; they can be compiled by an editor to represent different viewpoints or writings from various authors all exploring the same topic from different angles. Because of all of this, though, the information found in books may not be the most current information available.

Academic/Scholarly Journal Articles

Journal article icon shows many pages full of text

Sometimes also called “peer-reviewed” articles, these go through a rigorous review process before they are published. They reflect research that is considered primary or secondary depending on how the research is conducted: In the humanities (such as English or History), these are considered secondary sources, but in the sciences (such as Biology) and social sciences (such as Anthropology), original research articles are considered primary sources. Unlike books, these journal articles tend to focus on specific questions about a topic; they don’t explore or present a topic as broadly or deeply as a book, but the information they present can be much more current than a book. Also, because they are so focused, they might be seen as more specialized than a book’s coverage, and they will generally be written to an expert audience. This means that they are not written for the average person to read, but for those who are already familiar with the concepts surrounding the topic. Their target audience are others who have some expertise in a specific subject area—even though undergraduates are often required to use them too. Another thing to consider is that access to journal articles can be tricky. If your library doesn’t have access to a particular journal, either through a database or direct subscription, getting access on your own could be expensive and complicated (though as a community college student, you’re not usually expected to pursue resources beyond your college library).

Magazine Articles

Magazine icon shows short text and colorful images

These are a bit different than your academic/scholarly journal articles. Magazines tend to use a lot of colorful images designed to grab a reader’s attention, while scholarly journals feature graphs, charts, and tables with very little color, designed to convey information. Magazine articles will be written so that the average person can understand what is being discussed in the article. The articles tend to be much shorter than a scholarly journal article. Magazine articles can feature interviews and will look at current events or trends, but they won’t be seeking answers to research-based questions. Instead, their focus is on what might hold popular interest.

Newspaper Articles

Newspaper icon

Newspaper articles typically describe current events. In contrast to magazine and scholarly journal articles, newspaper articles tend to be very short. Newspapers are typically published daily, and therefore provide the most up-to-date information about an event. Their authors are journalists who may engage in investigative reporting, but they do not conduct original scholarly research. While these articles are often proofread and reviewed for accuracy before publication, they do not go through an extensive peer review process.


Image: “Articles” by Freepik, adapted by Aloha Sargent, from

Image: “Book” by mavadee, adapted by Aloha Sargent, from

Image: “Magazine” by Freepik, adapted by Aloha Sargent, from

Image: “Newspaper” by Freepik, adapted by Aloha Sargent, from


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Introduction to College Research Copyright © by Walter D. Butler; Aloha Sargent; and Kelsey Smith is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.