Inclusion, Well-being and Community Building

9 Community Building and Parents Communication


Nilofar Shewa and Roshan Gul Haidari

Learning Objectives

After reading this Chapter you will be able to:

  • Learn how to build rapport in the community
  • Create a positive social community at school
  • Understand the positive impact of parent communication on the academic performance of students
  • Comprehend the fundamental parents’ role in students’ academic performance, achievements, and affirmative behaviors
  • Engage parents in the school community


Community building and parent communication are two major aspects that help a school improve a safe and productive environment. These two aspects are intertwined, when we talk about building a school community, the first thing that comes to mind is the involvement of parents. Parental communication is critical to building a positive school community, as Penick stated, “Parent and community involvement is an important aspect of K12 education” (Penick, 2014) as well as strategies and techniques to help the school create a safe environment where everyone feels safety and belonging is the most important part of building community in schools. This chapter will help you learn how to use effective strategies to maintain a positive school environment as well as involve parents in the school, which will accelerate student participation and engagement in the classroom.

Schools do not exist outside of the local community, they thrive within it. When the community can be integrated into schools, schools can become communities in several forms, and their need to become communities becomes purposeful and crucial (Sergovianni, 1994, p. 256). Building community in the school provides a vital safety net because the status of the community is based on human needs. Humans are social beings, and when they face any problems or experience negative consequences, the need to have people around them share their feelings and emotions increases. The school community can be built through enriched planning and conscious pedagogical selection, education,d motivation for positive interaction between students. Community building in a school has two main aspects, one is community building within the school and the other is the school’s relationship with the local community. This process can be done using several strategies such as; a welcoming and inclusive environment, accessible communication, recognition of many cultures, bringing families together, and community involvement. In addition, social relationships within the school help create a sense of belonging created by the interpersonal and interdependent closeness between individuals.

Parental communication is a key link between school and community, with parents and teachers playing a vital role in childrebehavioriour, attitudes, studies, and learning outcomes. Communication with parents and teachers can be done in a variety of creative ways, including creating a podcast, creating a classroom social media page, holding a virtual meeting, and offering a weekly behavior repository (Karagiorgi et al., 2011, p. 66). . In addition, parental involvement is another topic in school that affects student academic achievement and positive behavior that is increasingly important for children (Fan, 2001). In addition, the article will also answer the questions “how to involve parents in school meetings, and how parents’ communication affects students’ academic results?” There are several ways to communicate with students for better performance, which are positive feedback, more teamwork, and creating a safe environment (Hanifan, 2022). Consequently, the second part of the chapter focuses on parental involvement, communication, and the impact of such involvement on their children’s academic achievement, achievement, and positive habits.

Community building and communication with parents are used in both traditional and blended learning methods. Schools can use these two essential elements to create a safe, productive, and positive school environment, in addition to helping students build a relationship with the school and local community through social service contributions.

Community building

Community building in common is a social approach emerging to address people’s needs within a particular geographical area. Community building is essential to activate the students’ participation in the classroom. According to evidence, when students feel they belong to their academic community, in which they matter to each other and where they can have social, emotional, and cognitive support for each other, they can participate in reflections discussions, and class dialogues enthusiastically and feel more responsible on their learning (Baker,2010). Sergovianni, (1994, P. 256) stated when the community can be integrated into schools, schools can turn into communities in several forms, and their need in becoming communities become purposeful and crucial. It is easy to create a community in schools in several ways, but the important point is to focus on creating a purposeful community. A community is where all members are developing a community of mind which bonds them uniquely and ties them to share the same ideology ( Sergiovanni, 1994, P,256).

Community building in school provides a crucial safety net. Because the status of the community is based on human needs. Humans as social beings when facing any problems or experiencing negative consequences, the need for having people around them to share their feeling and emotions goes up. Human needs can be divided into ‘rationale connections, emphasizing the pursuit of self-interest, and cultural connection, focusing on loyalty, purposes, and sentiments.’ (Sergiovanni,1994. P.354). While these two connections can be the human reality, schools can promote the influence of rational connection over cultural one.

According to Sergiovanni, (1994), schools can create community by transforming ideas into decisions in curriculum designing, regarding what should be taught and how the curriculum should be organized, but both the discipline that upholds such shared beliefs and the discretion that gives teachers and students the freedom to create their own educational goals and learning outcomes are essential. He also argued about the necessity for creating a community in today’s schools and provide some helpful guidelines on schools can implement changes at various levels to achieve this goal the means to fulfill the mission of the schools are particularly substantial imprinted on every area of the schools social and intellectual structure about its members. ( Sergiovanni, 1994. P,255). together with, a community of inquiry is another important factor in building a community.

A community of inquiry (CoI) (Garrison, 2009) is commonly cited for its three elements—social presence, instructional presence, and cognitive presence—all of which are considered key to cultivating a community of actively engaged participants. Participants can establish themselves as real/authentic selves in their academic community through interaction in social presence. Cognitive presence refers to the ability to construct meaning and receive perception. Instructional presence demonstrates the teacher’s ability to arrange, facilitate, and provide direct instruction to participants. Using these three components, we can cultivate a community that provides exceptional support for student development.

What is A School Community?

A community is a social group that lives in a certain geographic location and shares similar interests, experiences, and goals. Berry et al. (2017). Similarly, the term “school community” refers to how instructors and students work together to help each other socially and academically. (Lai, 2015). The word “school community” refers to the various people, organizations, and institutions invested in the success and vitality of the school and its community, which includes the locality and towns that the school serves. Members of the school community are teachers, students, administrators, and staff who work together to improve educational outcomes and student progress. Consequently, intentional community development is a critical component of good student engagement and classroom performance.

The term “school community” varies depending on the context; in some, it refers to the school’s administrators, teachers, and staff, whereas in others, it refers to the students, their parents, and the neighborhood’s residents, as well as the organizations that provide financial support to the school, such as foundations, booster clubs, and volunteer school improvement committees. In other contexts, it refers to a team of teachers, students, administrators, and staff members who are working together for the improvement of the school by creating a school community in which everyone contributes to enhancing the school climate and enhancing the relationship between teachers and students where they share a common goal, foster a sense of inclusion, and invest collectively.

The term “community” is also used to refer to people’s social and emotional ties to a particular school. These ties can be familial (parents and relatives of students), experiential (alumni and alumni), professional (those who work at the school and are paid by it), civic (those charged with overseeing the school or who volunteer their time and services). ), or socio-economic (those who work and are compensated by the school) (interested taxpayers and local businesses that may employ students). Due to a large number of stakeholders in the school community, the term stakeholders can also be used in the opposite sense. A community school is both a physical place and a network of community and educational collaboration.It focuses on academics, youth development, family support, health and social services and community development. “A method for securing community resources in relation to student success” is community schools. (Community School, n.d.).

Community schools reimagine education as a collaborative, child-centered effort in which schools, families, and communities work together to support student academic achievement, strengthen families, and improve communities through expanded work hours, services, and relationships.

Community building in School:

Adams, et al. (2020) define school community building as creating a space in which teachers provide learning goals and achievement through interaction and working collaboratively with students. The school community can be built with enriched planning and conscious pedagogical selection, nurturing and motivating positive interaction among students. A school’s community can be distinguished by the students’ cheerful demeanor and the teachers’ kind behavior. The school community is where students and staff feel included, where people are kind and welcoming, and where there are twinkles in their eyes when they first meet. In addition, students can perceive a sense of community in the school through the participation of teachers, which gives them the confidence to believe in themselves. There are many approaches to creating a sense of community in the classroom and across the school; these methods create a sense of belonging in the classroom and community in the classroom as explicitly stated in the body.

The drive to belong is one of the most fundamental needs we have as humans. Children must feel like they belong to be successful learners in schools. They need to feel connected to their teachers and fellow pupils, and they also need positive, welcoming affirmation of who they are. A community is being consciously created in a classroom where students belong. Students can talk to their teacher freely and without inhibition because they know them all and care about them. Students’ brain cells are unconsciously activated when they feel protected in school. One of the most crucial factors in a child’s learning engagement is a sense of belonging. The social connectivity of a child is the foundation for all other aspects of cognitive skill activation. The vitality originates from a child’s social connection. It’s crucial to feel connected in a varied community. Community development is greatly aided by participating in activities that teach students how to interact with others. In a belonging classroom, students used to come together to solve problems, discuss their successes and accomplishments, speak about events, and celebrate special occasions as families do. This gives the children the sensation that they were part of the family. Additionally, it encourages a feeling of inclusion among the pupils. You start to bring your feelings, emotions, anxieties, and needs to the school community. You can be open and honest about your experiences and current circumstances in this community and know that you will receive the acceptance, love, and support you need to get through it. Students in this community can assist one another both personally and academically.

Building community in the classroom is an important part of building community. Many exercises can help create a positive classroom environment. These seemingly simple activities have a huge positive impact on children’s attitudes and behaviour. For example, Daily Devotion teaches students how to spend time with those who value their work and kindness the most. It’s a simple show of respect and appreciation. Students are given one minute to discuss the person they are devoting the class to and their motivations throughout this activity. The second one is the morning gathering, in which everyone gathers in a circle before class begins and extends a friendly greeting. Then share the last day’s activities at home, they engage in a question-and-answer session where students enquire about their hobbies and personal lives. This exercise improves students’ listening skills and fosters a sense of empathy in young people. The third activity is a weekly circle in which students from different classes meet once a week to discuss their feelings and emotions, give a short presentation on a topic of interest, and engage in mindfulness and appreciation exercises. These seemingly insignificant activities have a big impact on a student’s life and career. It helps students develop rapport, strengthen social relationships, and increase their social and emotional learning.

The community can be built in several ways in which teachers encourage students in having positive interactions with their peers inside and outside the classroom in form of several activities they can learn in their classrooms.

(Morning meeting,2009)

School relation with the local community:

School relation with the local community has a significant role in its transformation journey. Where the school management closely works with the community organization to appeal the resources and recreation for supporting students academically and personally by turning the school into informal community centers. (Iqbal,2018). Strong school-to-community relationships can go a long way in helping underserved populations. They are constantly eager to help raise educational standards and reduce the attainment gap between poor and rich pupils to instill a sense of equality in their students. In these situations, the school is strongly encouraged to help students and their parents, which can be effective when approached from a neighborhood perspective. As a result, it is essential to include school communities outside the classroom in order to develop positive attitudes towards education. Based on the evidence the result of having a link with the outside community increase the students attend strengthens the positive attitude of the parents toward the local schools and parents would enthusiastically join parent meeting in school.

It is widely known that when parents are interested in their children’s education, they perform better in a number of metrics. They behave better, attend school more regularly, are less likely to be expelled, are more motivated to study and have better academic results. (Iqbal, 2018). Another area where the wider community can benefit is in the provision of extra-curricular education, which can greatly raise educational standards. Instructors are not obliged to provide these activities only in the classroom. Individuals and organizations in the wider community can be a valuable source of information.

A positive and respectful relationship with the community can help the school recruit locals as teachers, staff and others. Since the local instructors and staff are familiar with the background, culture, parents and local businesses, this has a huge impact on both the academic performance of the children and the culture of the school itself. They can have a beneficial impact on the school’s ability to absorb community resources. They can easily gain the trust of parents and the local community. In addition, they can create a network of local ties that can benefit the institution. In addition, due to their characteristics, they are suitable as a link between the school and the local community.

School relationships and partner relationships cannot be tied in a single day. Achieving this goal requires long-term effort and commitment, as well as education professionals with broad community awareness. It is important that they feel comfortable working in a “place” shared by their students’ parents and other community members.

The concept is that schools can benefit from the tradition of community organizing popularized by Saul Alinsky: The first thing you have to do in a community is listen, don’t talk, and learn to eat, sleep, and breathe only one thing: the problems and aspirations of the community.” According to To Paul Freire, those who desire cooperation must live in each other’s worlds. Community capacity development is a similar concept; some communities, especially those facing economic and social disadvantage, often need help to increase their potential for change. The basis of such plan is that “all communities have resources, capabilities and assets, but they also have constraints that limit what is possible.

Every Community has its resources, skills, and assets, likely they also have their limitation and implications. school may realize that such exclusion is their fault and take action accordingly. Schools have to take action to encourage those families who hardly attend parent meetings by building a rapport with the local community to appeal to their interest. Similarly, Kidd, D. (2014) suggested, schools can take pride in engendering pride amongst their students about the community where they belong to. Another strategy for making the local community aware of school involvement is for schools to seek out local heroes, such as those who run charities and food banks. Invite them to school to talk about their contribution to the success of the community; this will give children a sense of moral purpose that is connected to where they belong.

Contextual intelligence is the word used to characterize this understanding, according to research from the National College of Education Leadership. Leaders with such knowledge were seen as sensitive to the external work surrounding their institution without being condescending or condescending. They tended to focus on the strengths of the local community rather than its problems and saw the place as an opportunity rather than a challenge.


Edutopia. Building a Belonging Classroom. Youtube. EDU.(2019.Marck.1) 4#(video).(28) Building a Belonging Classroom – YouTube.

Strategies for Building a School Community

There are tens of strategies that help in building a school community, but I brought the most effective ones in this part. These are the essential strategies and the most needed ones for building a school community. These strategies not only help the schools to build a community but also it helps to have a school in the outside community; with this, they can facilitate a two-sided relationship in which not only students but also the community outside will be benefited. These are as follows: ( Natalie,2020)

Welcoming and Inclusive Environment:

Maintaining a welcoming school environment where the students have a sense of belongingness is the most vital strategy for building a strong school community. Schools need to facilitate an inclusive environment for both students and teachers in which they start their learning day with a positive mindset and enthusiasm to learn. These can consist of a small act of kindness such as having a cordial greeting between teacher and students, welcoming teachers and students to newcomers, etc. It helps the student especially the newcomers feel safe and belong in their new school environment, however, the first day of school can be frightening for young students. By providing a welcoming environment schools can overcome bullying among students.

Accessible communication:

Having diverse communication methods in schools in which teachers and school leaders are easily accessible through physical and virtual communication, can help the school to create a school community. It helps to bridge a tied link between parents, students, teachers, and school leaders. Accessible communication can help parents to have direct contact with their children’s teachers to ensure their children doing well in the classroom. In addition, integrating technology into communication can be an essential element of building a school community. Providing a record of the class activities to parents who want to know about their children’s performance in the class is highly impactful. Furthermore, innovating a platform in which parents have access to monitor their children’s progress and as well as to observe what they have in their academic calendar, daily agenda, and so forth, is another form of communication for building the school community.

Appreciate many Cultures:

Rarely happens to have students in a school from the same culture. Most schools are multicultural environments. Schools have to strive to maintain a culture of respect among students and school staff to build a community of inclusivity. Besides, schools for keeping a multicultural environment need to celebrate the culture and heritage of all students and staff members to value their student’s cultural heritage. Cross culture activities are the other form of cultural appreciation among students, in this way students know more about cultural diversity in school and learn how to respect other cultures. Building a community of culture by creating groups and teams of diverse cultures from students with different ethnic backgrounds in various clubs and activities within the classroom and the school as a whole is another form of community building. (Alicia Betz, n.d).

Bring Families together:

Schools can also foster community by bringing diverse groups of individuals together around a common goal. This approach can take many forms, such as parent and family relationships where the student’s parents come together to talk to their peers and participate in social-emotional activities where they can share their own experiences of good and bad days in their lives , success and failure and resilience among others. This school is able to tie a link between students’ parents which is not only helpful for the parents but also has a positive impact on students’ performance and provides the students with a sense of belongingness to the school environment. There are many activities under parents’ engagements like mom’s legacy, and weekly engagement of moms in which parents can share their experiences regarding supporting their children with their academic performance. In addition to exchanging views, they can have a parents’ café in which parents can have discussions and storytelling with their peers. This can help parents to reduce their stress and gives them a sense of connection. (Freitas, 2022).

Community Involvement:

One of the most important aspects of building a school community is community involvement. Schools can use this strategy to build a bridge between the school and the community. They can start a small act of kindness, such as a food bank or fundraiser for charity groups. Furthermore, schools can take initiative in celebrating international days, such as international day of the elderly; in which the students can visit old age homes to pass their time with senior citizens to bring smiles to the face of these people who are in high need of emotional support, a celebration of the international day of people with disability; in which students can visit rehabilitation centers to have some times to play with the children and please them in a way, the celebration of the international environmental day; in which students can take part in cleaning of a commonplace and similarly they can celebrate every international day by taking a small initiation in which they can help others and build a rapport between the school community and the local community. With this, students can learn social behavior, empathy, and other moral phenomenon.

Learning how to Build a Rapport in the School Community

The ability to maintain harmonious relationships based on affinity is defined as rapport (Granitz, et al.2009). Green claims to have (n.d.). Rapport is a harmonious connection that enables effective communication, increased task performance and quick problem solving. Mutual trust and respect are the foundation of a relationship.  (Green, n.d).  A “mutual trustworthy, courteous, pleasurable and good connection between instructor and pupils” is meant by rapport. According to Faranda and Clarke, rapport is the most important quality in a teacher, and strong rapport teachers are those that encourage class discussion and who are approachable, caring, for the students, and fair. They are also open-minded, creative, fascinating, accessible, joyful, and have nice personalities. (Frisby, 2018). Rapport building is crucial for both teachers and students. From students’ perspective, the rapport has been linked to better learning outcomes, improved attitudes toward course and instructors, decrease anxiety, increase engagement and participation, increase learning outcomes, propensity to use student services such as tutoring and counseling, and graduation persistence. Building rapport with students fosters ties and an active learning environment in the classroom from the perspective of the teachers, reducing burnout and increasing teaching satisfaction as well as institutional commitment. Rapport building can be done in two ways within the school. One, between the teacher and students in the class 2nd between all school community members.

Rapport building in the classroom is one of the vital approaches, that enables teachers to build trust and appeal to the student’s consent.   Rapport can be built in several ways; such as before the class, during the class, beyond the student’s academic performance, and through the specific behavior of teachers. According to Frisby, (2018), “First, building rapport starts early, even before a class begins” (P.10). A welcoming session before the class is highly effective in building rapport between students and teachers it can boost students’ motivation toward their learning for the entire semester. The first day of class matters because, it has been said that, “first impression defines you” if a teacher can have good skills in rapport building, he/she will stay longer in students’ minds and the student will never forget the teacher with a kind attitude. Building rapport during the class between teacher and students helps to build rapport between students and their peers. (Frisby, 2018. p,11). The way the teacher interacts with students and makes eye contact during the interaction, values students’ ideas and viewpoints are all the ingredients for building rapport during the class. Moreover, the approachability of the teacher is another form of building rapport it gives a sense of trust and belonging in students when the teacher provides them with office hour, extra lecture as needed, and listen to the problem and issues when students face in academic and personal life. These are valued and most important components in building rapport between teacher and students during the class. Thirdly, As Frisby, (2018) stated, teachers, can improve their instructions and make learning more meaningful for students by getting to know their students on a deeper level than just their academic success. (P.11), students highly appreciate a nice teacher, they loved to know their teachers deeper by questioning them about their personal life. Teachers who disclose their life stories are easily trustable to the students and they can make a strong connection. Fourthly, an optimist teacher has the skill of building rapport easily because he/she always sees good things in students, love them equally, have a strong sense of equality and equity. These attitudes are essential in building rapport, students especially children are highly dependent on their teachers since they see the teachers as their mothers and fathers. Teachers need to remove every possible obstacle and distance between themselves and their students to make a good connection.

In the whole-school strategy, social connection is a type of relationship development. It is defined as the closeness to others that is necessary for a sense of belonging and is dependent on interaction with other people. The two main components of social connectivity are the relatedness component, which indicates connection or connectedness with others, and the autonomy component, which defines how people feel when they are valued in a relationship. Bower and colleagues (2015). As part of a school-wide strategy, relationship development refers to the entire interaction between students, instructors, school leaders, and school staff. How school principals create a highly warm and welcoming school climate where everyone feels they belong and are valued. In a school community where all school members feel safe and find it like their homes. It all depends on the school management and how they provide a safe and friendly environment in which not only students but also everyone in the school community feels safe and valued. Next, it is the responsibility of teachers to follow a unique approach in common to build rapport inside the class in which students learn to practice the same outside the class with other students and as well as school staff. On the other hand, promoting the rapport-building approach in the school community as a whole can help the students to build strong social relationships inside and outside the school community. In this way, the school will maintain a positive environment that has a good impact on everyone’s life in the school.

Building Social Relations inside the School

A social relationship is defined as “a relationship between living organisms, especially humans” (Vocabulary .com). In other words, the basic unit of analysis in the social sciences is social interaction. It refers to any voluntary or involuntary interpersonal contact that exists between two or more people within or between groups. The sense of belonging created by interpersonal and interdependent intimacy between individuals is also defined as a social bond or connection. (The Education Hub). It is independent of the number of friends or the regularity with which an individual interacts with others, rather it relates to the expressive positivity and intimacy an individual experiences in their contacts. A social relationship is a sense of trust and belonging that exists between people who live in the same community, giving them acceptance and admiration for their qualities and abilities, rather than being tolerated or overlooked. Because cognitive and emotional processes in the brain are closely linked, social interaction is essential for learning and well-being.

Humans as social beings are highly in need of relations with their mates in terms of mental well-being. In general, social relation is essential for both physical and mental health. A lack of social connection is more detrimental to students’ health than high blood pressure, smoking, or obesity. On the other hand, feeling connected to people has been found to increase resilience and strengthen the immune system. In an educational context, social relationships are very important. School can be difficult and monotonous without social relationships. Neuroscientific research has shown that a sense of belonging has a major impact on students’ ability to acquire, retain and apply knowledge and skills. This impact was previously thought to be secondary to learning and cognition, but it is now clear that it is an essential factor. Life satisfaction, on the other hand, is determined by the social relationships of pupils within their school environment.  According to Kim, (2011), “school life satisfaction is one of the most important dimensions” Research has shown that school life satisfaction has a variety of educational effects, such as improving academic performance and reducing offensive behavior or disciplinary issue. Students who are struggling with social relations issues within the school community are more likely discouraged from attending school and they have a lower rate of attendance in the classroom.

Social relationships are essential to learning. Students who struggle to form social relationships often experience shifts and barriers to learning, and their learning flow is restricted. According to Chuter (2020), “learning is limited by reduced executive function in students with lower levels of social contacts.” The executive function of the brain acts as the control center of the brain, quickly organizing and utilizing new knowledge. The following abilities are greatly impaired due to depression caused by stress and cognitive load caused by lack of social interaction.

Planning, Organizing, and time management; students who feel apart from the school community will struggle to manage their time or plan because they are preoccupied with the stress of their current situation.

Working memory and attention; The quantity of knowledge a person can keep in their brain at once without getting lost or confused is referred to as working memory, which involves the initial encoding of information. Working memory and attention are significantly reduced in pupils when they feel alienated from their surroundings or that their teacher doesn’t like them or have confidence in their talents. Students focus more of their mental energy on the cause of their worry than on the lessons they are learning. Less effectively able to listen, follow instructions, and concentrate on complex learning.

Flexible transfer of knowledge & skills; An unstressed brain is necessary for the sorting of new information into a previously held schema or for the modification of the current schema to accommodate new understanding. The inability to connect with others socially also hinders a student’s capacity for original problem-solving. Or, to put it another way, social connection is essential to human pleasure, and when we’re sad, our capacity for critical thought is severely diminished. When someone feels alone or rejected, their prefrontal cortex’s capacity for flexible knowledge or skill utilization is hindered.

Havethattalk.Building Social Connection.(2017.Mar 3).Youtube.3#(Video).(28) Building Social Connections – YouTube.

Communicating with Parents

Why is parent communication essential and how can schools do it effectively?

The quality of a social relationship and its demise depend on communication, which is the lifeblood of social interactions! Parental communication is one of those crucial relationships that must include listening, availability, understanding, mutual respect, and emotion (Runcan et al., 2012, p. 1).

Parental communication is a crucial link between the home and the community for two educational institutions to work in harmony. Effective communication with children requires particular communication skills, including the use of proper words, a calm tone, and acceptable body language (Kumar Grover, 2014. P. 2). Parents’ communication has an important role in children’s behavior, attitude, studies, and learning school outcomes. According to Lichand et al. (2020), communication has a favorable impact on all categories; even parents who were accurate at the beginning of the process changed their behavior and noticed improvements in their children’s academic achievement.

Figure1. Indicates the significance of teacher-parent contact.

The Mathletics Team. July 13th, 2016.

Parent-teacher communication is an important part of a student’s education. When the family of a student can communicate with their child’s teacher, the two sides can work together to build a relationship and create an optimal learning environment, both at home and school. Besides, both teachers and parents have responsibilities for their students and children. Cunha et al., (2017) suggest parents play a crucial role in shaping their children’s behavior and school performance (p. 36). The performance, attendance, GPA, requirements, and progress of their children must be disclosed to teacher parents. Parents can see their children’s work at school and the instructor can update them on their child’s progress for better results. As children get older, their goals may diverge more from those of their future-focused parents. Additionally, parents may find it harder to monitor their children’s schoolwork as they get older (Cunha et al., 2014., 2).

Since I was in school days, my goal and family goals were different for my university field. I worked hard to be a success in the English literature field, but my parents wanted their interest field, engineering. They did not see my effort in school. The only reason can be the lack of parental communication in school.

Schools have a fundamental role in establishing parents’ communication and parents are also responsible to be aware of students, attendance, absence, marks, educational curricula, challenges, and progress. Communication can be done in formal and informal ways. Schools can have weekly, monthly, and annual meetings with parents at the start of a school year and last until students move on to the next grade or use some platform for every day’s report. According to Cunha et al. (2017), weekly communication has a significant effect on attendance, exam results, and promotion rates. Additionally, the effects of sharing knowledge are negligible or nonexistent because salience enhances the outcomes of information effects. There are a variety of informal ways to get in touch with and communicate with parents that may present opportunities for teachers and parents to learn more about one another’s viewpoints, such as casual discussions before school, after-school gatherings, and phone calls (Karagiorgi et al., 2011, p. 66).

The following are some inventive methods for teachers to contact parents:

  1. Make a podcast
  2. Create a Facebook page for your classroom.
  3. Organize a meeting online.
  4. Report on conduct each week.

Here is a teacher platform sample:

To improve engagement between the administration, teachers, and parents, the system requires teachers to enter information for every kid.

Figure2. Describes the platform sample.

(Cunha et al., 2017, p. 13)

For instructors and parents to be aware of students’ activity, this platform would be useful. Each week, teachers on this platform receive a text message telling them which dimension they need to complete that week. Teachers who miss a week are informed through an alert that they failed to fill out the platform for that week and are urged to do so the following week. Principals get motivational messages to get teachers involved in the program, as well as notifications if teacher participation in the program is low in the school. Eventually, the messages get out to parents and guardians. When parents obtain accurate information about their children and when schools send parents an email, Bergman (2017) discovers that parents can influence students’ educational behavior and success.  According to Bergman (2017), sending parents an SMS when a child doesn’t complete an assignment results in a significant improvement in test scores, GPA, and student engagement. Parents can influence students’ educational behavior and achievement when they have accurate information about their children (p. 37).

Figure 3. Elaborates parents-teacher communication.

How do involve parents in school meetings?

The parents’ meeting is a fantastic chance to learn about student performance and to strive to improve it. It also provides a chance to ensure that the child is performing to his or her fullest potential both academically and otherwise. According to Castro et al. (2015), parental participation should be taken into consideration as a tool to raise children’s academic achievement because it is a family’s individual right, obligation, and social need (p. 2). The parents’ meeting creates a dialogue on the learning process, shortcomings, attempts, and difficulties of the pupils. The largest obstacle is also that everyone is extremely busy with their jobs, businesses, and other commitments. For example, a teacher may instruct a large number of pupils in various classes while also completing other commitments outside of the classroom. The student is occupied with reading, writing, and finishing homework and class assignments. The dad is occupied with his job, providing for the family’s needs. Teachers can encourage and assist parental involvement in a child’s education, but they cannot compel it. If teachers use the digital era to make it simple for parents, they will be more likely to participate.


Figure4. Shows parents’ involvement in the school meeting.

Credit: Almay Stock Photo

Here are some tips for the involvement of parents in school meetings:

Online tutorials:

Teachers can offer some advice on how parents can aid their children when those youngsters may require specific additional help, and parents and teachers can exchange ideas via web videos on the school website.

An online calendar and dedicated blog:

Parents’ hectic schedules make it difficult for them to keep track of events, which is one of the greatest arguments against parental involvement. They may stay informed with the help of an event calendar and a dedicated parent blog.

Using social media in the classroom to engage parents:

Social networking is now used by most parents. Plans for continual communication between schools and instructors can be made using popular platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram, and Google Plus. Connecting parents to the school’s website and starting a dialogue with them through social media can be a fruitful communication strategy.

Home visits and parent/teacher conferences:

Parents and teachers, both have the responsibility to be involved and discuss students’ weaknesses, progress, challenges, and social behavior only online meetings do not respond all the time, therefore parents have to put time for face-to-face meetings at home or school.

Family dinners:

The parent-teacher relationship is strengthened by holding an Open House event when all members of the student’s family can tour the facility and classroom in a friendly and informal setting. It can be a useful way for the teacher and families to sit down and talk about the learning, development, and issues of the pupils in order to find a solution.

(Jay Cooper, 2021).

Figure 5. The video presents, how to conduct a parent’s teacher meeting.

How does the parent’s communication impact students` academic performance?

According to Kaptich et al. (2019), parent-teacher communication enhances student engagement as indicated by homework completion rates, on-task behavior, and class participation. Parental communication also has a significant effect on students’ growth and achievement (p.3). Positive feedback increased teamwork, and fostered a safe environment are just a few of the methods you interact with students to improve performance (Hanifan, 2022). In addition, Epstein’s model (2002) introduces three “spheres of influence “ways in which students learn and develop, these are:

  1. Family
  2. School
  3. Community

The above three ways show that students get success whenever three factors work together and feel responsible for the student’s best performance. As mentioned earlier school is one of the other factors that can have a positive and productive role in parent communication. Therefore, schools have to organize parent meetings before, during, and after the school year. Besides, in advanced countries most parents are busy with studies and duties, therefore, they might not be able to attend meetings. Schools can find some productive way of communicating which is using online platforms or emails.

Lucero (2021) suggests that “For some educators, the digital age has helped bridge the disconnect between home and school by paving the way for faster and more convenient forms of parent-teacher communication. Not only can parents and teachers communicate via email, but there are now special digital platforms like ClassDojo and Seesaw Family that further facilitate communication. Through these digital platforms, teachers set up class accounts and invite parents to join. Communication through these apps is similar to texting between parties. Communicating digitally allows for instant access” (p. 22). Communication between teachers and parents enhances student involvement as indicated by homework completion rates, on-task behavior, and class participation. Parental communication informs parents of their children’s strengths, development, and accomplishments.

Figure 6. Explains how well parents communicate with their children.

(Parks & Recreation Ontario, 2019)

Parental involvement in the school community:

Parents and the school have a mutually beneficial connection. For students who are involved in education, school is like a second home, and parents are accountable for their children’s grade levels because they improve their children’s cultural development by utilizing a variety of knowledge and fostering the growth of intelligent children. Families also encourage their children and boost their motivation to teach, and they are responsible for creating the right environment. Additionally, parents can help kids just as much as schools can. As unique assets to the education of children, both parents and schools play a crucial role in the school community. Partnerships between schools, the community, and parents have long been seen as a potential strategy to assist families and students who are struggling (Dewey, 1902).

One of the other roles of parents towards schools and children is to consider themselves partners in the education of students. Furthermore, by collecting enough information about their child’s academic and moral position, parents have a responsibility to frequently contact the school and make an informed decision to engage in their child’s education. This will help parents to be more in touch with the school and explore their children’s needs. Epstein (1995) pointed to the theory of overlapping spheres, which outlines six types of involvement and indicates the parent’s role:

  • Communicating (Volunteering)
  • Home Learning
  • Decision making
  • Working in Tandem with the Community

Parents need to be at school in their capacity as guardians, not as someone who is in charge somewhere. The student should not enter school with the same form, the same expectations, or the same imaginations if his or her parent holds a high-level executive position in governmental positions or organizations, assumes the role of the leader there, and occasionally issues commands and prohibitions following the responsibility. Parents have to find their position in their children`s schooling, not only while they are asking for parent meetings or any participation. Pushor and Ruitenberg (2005) elaborate, “parents to take their position alongside educators in the teaching of their children in school.



Interview with Mr. Wafil Khan the Initiator of Jonaki’r Alo Community School in Chittagong Bangladesh regarding the impact of parents’ involvement and building social relations beyond the school community.
Podcast Link:




In today’s world, building community in schools is essential. Unlike the old version of schools and their operation, other factors help schools in the modern education system, in addition to leveling students’ theoretical knowledge, they help them learn social behavior, build a relationship with school and outside school. communities, they connect their social relationships and have a positive contribution outside the school community as well. In the first part of this chapter, you discussed techniques and strategies that help teachers and school leaders create a happy and productive school environment, as well as the importance and impact of parent communication on children’s academic success. These two factors are combined to help you learn the most effective techniques for developing a school community through parent involvement. The second series of chapters was written to emphasize the importance and influence of parental communication on students’ academic achievement, achievement and affirmative behavior in school. Even the right-start parents are modifying behavior and witnessing better school outcomes in the end, as well as explaining parent involvement through new approaches to not only get parents involved, but to feel involved. Parent involvement according to Castro et al. (2015), should be considered as a technique to improve children’s academic results, because it is both a social need and an individual right of families (p. 2). Additionally, it was important to acknowledge and underline the importance of parents in the school environment and how their relationship with the institution benefits both parties. As a result, parents’ communication has a fundamental role in students’ performance, academic performance, achievements, and affirmative behaviors. Parents and schools bring unique strengths to the education of children, which means both have the responsibility to solve the issues students are facing with them.



Brown, E. G., Amwake, C., Speth, T., & Scott-Little, C. (2002). The Continuity Framework: A Tool for Building Home, School, and Community Partnerships. Early Childhood Research & Practice4(2), n2.

Bower, J. M., van Kraayenoord, C., & Carroll, A. (2015). Building social connectedness in schools: Australian teachers’ perspectives. International Journal of Educational Research, 70, 101-109. doi:10.1016/j.ijer.2015.02.004

Crea, T. M., Reynolds, A. D., & Degnan, E. (2015). Parent engagement at a Cristo Rey high school: Building home-school partnerships in a multicultural immigrant community. Journal of Catholic Education19(1), 223-242.

Frisby, B. N., & Martin, M. M. (2010). Instructor–student, and student–student rapport in the classroom. Communication Education59(2), 146-164.

Frisby, B. (2018). On rapport: Connecting with students. Greater Faculties: A Review of Teaching and Learning2(1), 3.

Frisby, B. (2018). On rapport: Connecting with students. Greater Faculties: A Review of Teaching and Learning2(1), 3.

Freitas, A.(2022). Bringing Families Together to Build Community Well-being.US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: Bringing Families Together to Build Community Well-being | ECLKC ( accessed on: 2/1/2023.

Harkavy, I. (1998). School-community-university partnerships: Effectively integrating community building and education reform. Connecting community building and education reform: effective school, community, university partnerships, Washington, DC.

Hanifan, L. J. (1916). The rural school community center. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science67(1), 130-138.

Iqbal, K. (2018). Community in the school and school in the community. OPTIMUS EDUCATION. Retrieved from: Community in the school and school in the community | Optimus Education Blog ( accessed on: 1/1/2023.

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Sergiovanni, T. J. (1994). Building community in schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Recommended Readings

Ana R. Kimaro & Haruni J. Machumu. (2015). Impacts of parental involvement in school activities on academic achievement of primary school children. International Journal of Education and Research, 3.

Teresa Lucero. (2021). The Impacts of Parent-Teacher Communication on English Learners’ Academic Achievement. Thesis, 22.

Harkavy, I. (1998). School-community-university partnerships: Effectively integrating community building and education reform. Connecting community building and education reform: effective school, community, university partnerships, Washington, DC.

Schaps, E., Battistich, V., & Solomon, D. (2004). Community in school as key to student growth: Findings from the Child Development Project. Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say, 189-205.


Key Terms

Community building: is a group approach that teaches deep and honest communication.

Rapport: is a close and harmonious relationship in which the persons or groups involved understand each other well and communicate well with each other.

Social community: consists of three components: (a) interpersonal networks that offer sociability, social support, and social capital to its members; (b) living in a common area such as a village or neighborhood; and c) feelings and acts of solidarity.

(CoP): Community of Practice; a group of persons who gather to pursue individual and collective goals because they have a common interest, set of problems, or field of interest. These communities are used in education by teachers who want to improve teaching and facilitate learning for their students.

(COI): Community of Inquiry is a group of people working together to develop personal meaning and enhance mutual understanding through purposeful critical dialogue and thinking.

Generative Learning Strategies

Readers can follow the bellow strategies to better understand the chapter content:

1- Summarizing and Self Explaining

Readers through the summarization and Self Explaining Strategy require to:

  • Select important ideas, organize them into a logical pattern, and combine new and existing information.
  • Describe the details of the lesson. Select the most relevant knowledge, explain specifics in your own words, organize knowledge using inferences, and combine information with pre-existing knowledge as you explain.

2- Teaching Others: 

Readers are asked to teach this chapter content to:

  • Teachers’ capacity-building purpose is enhancing the skills of building community and parents. communication.
  • Students to how they can build a rapport within the school community.
  • Parents how to engage with school teachers concerning their children’s class performance.


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About the authors

Nilofar Shewa has a MA. Social Work from Punjab University of Chandigarh in India, and currently pursuing her Second MA in Education at Asian University for Women. She holds a bachelor of Education major in English Literature. She is a Persian speaker from the Badakhshan Province of Afghanistan. She has worked in International Organizations in Human Resources, Administration and Finance, Monitoring, Community Development,  Awareness, and Communication. Her area of interest is social work and community development. She aims to become a social reformer to bring positive change to her community. Her core value is serving human beings regardless of their nationality, religion, language, race, caste, class, gender, sexual orientation, and so forth.

Roshan Gul Haidari is a master`s student at the Asian University for Women in the field of Education. She is originally Afghan and a Persian native speaker. She has born in the Ghazni province of Afghanistan and currently living in Chittagong Bangladesh. She holds a bachelor’s degree from the Adrak Institute of Higher Education in the field of education, which she completed with great enthusiasm in 2019. Her research interest comprises social media, immigration, women’s education, and child labor. And also, she is an online teacher for Afghan women in Afghanistan.


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