Streaming Video

Streaming videos are quite popular and have become relatively easy to cite. Here is the pattern:

Author, A. A. [User name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video]. Publisher (e.g., YouTube, Vimeo, TED etc.). https:// www.www.www

Martinez, B.  (2009, July 21). Flamenco classes for children with Barbara Martinez (NYC) [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/4qEClG5x-b8

Bank Street Help Desk. (2013, November 12). YouTube record from webcam [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/ECNxMWptmL8

Bank Street Library. (2012, February 16). I want my hat back [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/36907580


The author is the person or entity who posted the video. Include:

  1. any user name after the author in square brackets.
  2. if there is no real name just include the user name but omit the square brackets.

In the examples above there are no user names.


YouTube gives exact publication dates. You can find out the exact date of Vimeo clips by clicking More which will activate an About pop-up box. In the example above the exact date is Thursday, February 16, 2012, at 11:13 am. Another way to find dates for Vimeo clips is to hover over text that says xxx ago | More.

In-Text Citations

In text, use the following citations: (Martinez, 2009), (Bank Street Help Desk, 2013), (Bank Street Library, 2013).

Direct Quotations

The only option for directly quoting from audio-visual material is to provide a timestamp, e.g., (Martinez, 2009, 1:30:04).

See APA Style YouTube Video References and TED Talk References for more help.

(American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 334)


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