7 2.1 Getting started
- Find a topic to investigate
- Create a working question
Choosing a social work research topic
According to the Action Network for Social Work Education and Research (ANSWER), social work research is conducted to benefit “consumers, practitioners, policymakers, educators, and the general public through the examination of societal issues” (ANSWER, n.d., para. 2).  Common social issues that are studied include “health care, substance abuse, community violence, family issues, child welfare, aging, well-being and resiliency, and the strengths and needs of underserved populations” (ANSWER, n.d., para. 2). This list is certainly not exhaustive. Social workers may study any area that impacts their practice. However, the unifying feature of social work research is its focus on promoting the well-being of target populations.
If you are an undergraduate social work student that is not yet practicing social work, then how do you identify a researchable topic? Part of the joy in being a social work student is figuring out what areas of social work are appealing to you. Perhaps there are certain theories that speak to you, based on your values or experiences. Perhaps there are social issues you wish to change. Perhaps there are certain groups of people you want to help. Perhaps there are clinical interventions that interest you. Any one of these areas is a good place to start. At the beginning of a research project, your focus should be finding a social work topic that is interesting enough to spend a semester reading and writing about.
A good topic selection plan begins with a general orientation into the subject you are interested in pursuing in more depth. Here are some suggestions when choosing a topic area:
- Pick an area of interest or experience, or an area where you know there is a need for more research.
- It may be easier to start with “what” and “why” questions and expand on those. For example, what are the best methods of treating severe depression? Or why are people receiving SNAP more likely to be obese?
- If you already have practice experience in social work through employment, an internship, or volunteer work, think about practice issues you noticed in the placement.
- Ask a professor, preferably one active in research, about possible topics.
- Read departmental information on research interests of the faculty. Faculty research interests vary widely, and it might surprise you what they’ve published on in the past. Most departmental websites post the curriculum vitae, or CV, of faculty which lists their publications, credentials, and interests.
- Read a research paper that interests you. The paper’s literature review or background section will provide insight into the research question the author was seeking to address with their study. Is the research incomplete, imprecise, biased, or inconsistent? As you’re reading the paper, look for what’s missing. These may be “gaps in the literature” that you might explore in your own study. The conclusion or discussion section at the end may also offer some questions for future exploration. A recent blog posting in Science (Pain, 2016)  provides several tips from researchers and graduate students on how to effectively read these papers.
- Think about papers you enjoyed researching and writing in other classes. Research is a unique class and will use the tools of social science for you to think more in depth about a topic. It will bring a new perspective that will deepen your knowledge of the topic.
- Identify and browse journals related to your research interests. Faculty and librarians can help you identify relevant journals in your field and specific areas of interest.
How do you feel about your topic?
Perhaps you have started with a specific population in mind, such as youth who identify as LGBTQ or visitors of a local health clinic. Perhaps you choose to start with a specific social problem, such as gang violence, or social policy or program, such as zero-tolerance policies in schools. Alternately, maybe there are interventions that you are interested in learning more about, such as dialectical behavioral therapy or applied behavior analysis. Your motivation for choosing a topic does not have to be objective. Because social work is a values-based profession, social work researchers often find themselves motivated to conduct research that furthers social justice or fights oppression. Just because you think a policy is wrong or a group is being marginalized, for example, does not mean that your research will be biased. Instead, it means that you must understand how you feel, why you feel that way, and what would cause you to feel differently about your topic.
Start by asking yourself how you feel about your topic. Be totally honest, and ask yourself whether you believe your perspective is the only valid one. Perhaps yours isn’t the only perspective, but do you believe it is the wisest one? The most practical one? How do you feel about other perspectives on this topic? If you are concerned that you may design a project to only achieve answers that you like and/or cover up findings that you do not like, then you must choose a different topic. For example, a researcher may want to find out whether there is a relationship between intelligence and political affiliation, while holding the personal bias that members of her political party are the most intelligent. Her strong opinion would not be a problem by itself, however if she feels rage when considering the possibility that the opposing party’s members are more intelligent than those of her party, then the topic is probably too conflicting to use for unbiased research.
It is important to note that strong feelings about a topic are not always problematic. In fact, some of the best topics to research are those that are important to us. What better way to stay motivated than to study something that you care about? You must be able to accept that people will have a different perspective than you do, and try to represent their viewpoints fairly in your research. If you feel prepared to accept all findings, even those that may be unflattering to or distinct from your personal perspective, then perhaps you should intentionally study a topic about which you have strong feelings.
Kathleen Blee (2002)  has taken this route in her research. Blee studies hate movement participants, people whose racist ideologies she studies but does not share. You can read her accounts of this research in two of her most well-known publications, Inside Organized Racism and Women of the Klan. Blee’s research is successful because she was willing to report her findings and observations honestly, even those about which she may have strong feelings. Unlike Blee, if you conclude that you cannot accept or share with findings that you disagree with, then you should study a different topic. Knowing your own hot-button issues is an important part of self-knowledge and reflection in social work.
Social workers often use personal experience as a starting point for what topics are interesting to cover. As we’ve discussed here, personal experience can be a powerful motivator to study a topic in detail. However, social work researchers should be mindful of their own mental health during the research process. A social worker who has experienced a mental health crisis or traumatic event should approach researching related topics with caution. There is no need to retraumatize yourself or jeopardize your mental health for a research paper. For example, a student who has just experienced domestic violence may want to know about Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. While the student might gain some knowledge about potential treatments for domestic violence, they will likely have to read through many stories and reports about domestic violence. Unless the student’s trauma has been processed in therapy, conducting a research project on this topic may negatively impact the student’s mental health. Nevertheless, she will acquire skills in research methods that will help her understand the EMDR literature and whether to begin treatment in that modality.
Whether you feel strongly about your topic or not, you will also want to consider what you already known about it. There are many ways we know what we know. Perhaps your mother told you something is so. Perhaps it came to you in a dream. Perhaps you took a class last semester and learned something about your topic there, or you may have read something about your topic in your local newspaper or in People magazine. We discussed the strengths and weaknesses associated with some of these different sources of knowledge in Chapter 1, and we’ll talk about other sources of knowledge, such as prior research in the next few sections. For now, take some time to think about what you know about your topic from all possible sources. Thinking about what you already know will help you identify any biases you may have, and it will help as you begin to frame a question about your topic.
What do you want to know?
Once you have a topic, begin to think about it in terms of a question. What do you really want to know about the topic? As a warm-up exercise, try dropping a possible topic idea into one of the blank spaces below. The questions may help bring your subject into sharper focus and provide you with the first important steps towards developing your topic.
- What does ___ mean? (Definition)
- What are the various features of ___? (Description)
- What are the component parts of ___? (Simple analysis)
- How is ___ made or done? (Process analysis)
- How should ___ be made or done? (Directional analysis)
- What is the essential function of ___? (Functional analysis)
- What are the causes of ___? (Causal analysis)
- What are the consequences of ___? (Causal analysis)
- What are the types of ___? (Classification)
- How is ___ like or unlike ___? (Comparison)
- What is the present status of ___? (Comparison)
- What is the significance of ___? (Interpretation)
- What are the facts about ___? (Reportage)
- How did ___ happen? (Narration)
- What kind of person is ___? (Characterization/Profile)
- What is the value of ___? (Evaluation)
- What are the essential major points or features of ___? (Summary)
- What case can be made for or against ___? (Persuasion)
- What is the relationship between _____ and the outcome of ____? (Exploratory)
Take a minute right now and write down a question you want to answer. Even if it doesn’t seem perfect, everyone needs a place to start. Make sure your research topic is relevant to social work. You’d be surprised how much of the world that encompasses. It’s not just research on mental health treatment or child welfare services. Social workers can study things like the pollution of irrigation systems and entrepreneurship in women, among infinite other topics. The only requirement is your research must inform action to fight social problems faced by target populations.
Your question is only a starting place, as research is an iterative process, one that is subject to constant revision. As we progress in this textbook, you’ll learn how to refine your question and include the necessary components for proper qualitative and quantitative research questions. Your question will also likely change as you engage with the literature on your topic. You will learn new and important concepts that may shift your focus or clarify your original ideas. Trust that a strong question will emerge from this process.
- Many researchers choose topics by considering their own personal experiences, knowledge, and interests.
- Researchers should be aware of and forthcoming about any strong feelings they might have about their research topics.
- There are benefits and drawbacks associated with studying a topic about which you already have some prior knowledge or experience. Researchers should be aware of and consider both.
- Writing a question down will help guide your inquiry.
Transportation/Traffic by Max Pixel CC-0
- Action Network for Social Work Education and Research (n.d.). Advocacy. Retrieved from: https://www.socialworkers.org/Advocacy/answer ↵
- Pain, E. (2016, March 21). How to (seriously) read a scientific paper. Science. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencemag.org/careers/2016/03/how-seriously-read-scientific-paper ↵
- Blee, K. (2002). Inside organized racism: Women and men of the hate movement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press; Blee, K. (1991). Women of the Klan: Racism and gender in the 1920s. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ↵