Dr. Evan Freeman is Contributing Editor for Byzantine art at Smarthistory. He completed his Ph.D. at Yale University in 2019, where he wrote his dissertation on portable ritual objects of the Middle Byzantine period. He held an Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Fellowship at Smarthistory from 2020–2021 and was recently awarded an Alexander von Humboldt Postdoctoral Research Fellowship to pursue research at the University of Regensburg. His research explores art, architecture, and ritual in the Byzantine Empire and the wider medieval Mediterranean and Slavic lands.

Anne McClanan is a Professor of Byzantine Art at Portland State University, after studying at Harvard (Ph.D.), Johns Hopkins (M.A.), and Columbia University (A.B.). She is currently writing a book on the representation of griffins, looking across time at the transformation and persistence of this motif. Her prior publications explore topics of gender, including a book about early Byzantine empresses and an anthology about the premodern material culture of procreation and marriage, and iconoclasm. She has excavated in Turkey, Jordan, and Israel.


Ruth Ezra received her PhD in the History of Art and Architecture from Harvard University. She specializes in the art of Europe, 1400-1700, with a particular focus on sculpture produced in the German-speaking lands. A committed educator, she has lectured widely at museums and in higher education, most recently at the University of Southern California, where she is a postdoctoral fellow.


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Smarthistory Guide to Byzantine Art Copyright © 2021 by Dr. William Allen; Dr. Magdalene Breidenthal; Dr. Andrew Casper; Dr. Paroma Chatterjee; Dr. Allen Farber; Dr. Ariel Fein; Dr. Evan Freeman; Dr. Beth Harris; Kalliroe Linardou; Dr. Elizabeth Macaulay; Kathleen Maxwell; Dr. Anne McClanan; Dr. Robert G. Ousterhout; Dr. Nancy Ross; Dr. Courtney Tomaselli; Dr. Nicolette S. Trahoulia; Dr. Alicia Walker; and Dr. Steven Zucker is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.