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Hirji KF (2017) The Enduring Relevance of Walter Rodney’s How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Daraja Press, Canada.
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Akivaga Crisis – Documents
ACD-00: Nsekela AJ (1971) Speech by AJ Nsekela, Chairman of the Council of the University of Dar es Salaam at the graduation ceremony on 7th July 1971, 7 July 1971.
ACD-01: Akivaga S (DUSO President) (1971) Open letter to the Vice Chancellor, Dar es Salaam University Students’ Organization, 8 July 1971.
ACD-02: Mwingira AC (Chief Administrative Officer) (1971) Charges of disciplinary offenses against Symonds Akivaga, University of Dar es Salaam, 8 July 1971.
ACD-03: Muwowo JAT (Dean of Students) (1971) Rustication letter: Symonds Akivaga, University of Dar es Salaam, 9 July 1971.
ACD-04: Kanywanyi JL, Malima KA and Mbilinyi M (Ad Hoc Committee of Academic Staff) (1971) Call for a general staff meeting (endorsed by 64 staff members), University of Dar es Salaam, 9 July 1971.
ACD-05: Moshi EA (DUSO Vice President) (1971a) Letter to all students on the rustication of the DUSO president, Dar es Salaam University Students’ Organization, 10 July 1971.
ACD-06: TYL (1971) Statement of UDSM TYL branch (in Swahili and English), University of Dar es Salaam TYL Branch, 10 July 1971.
ACD-07: Materu FM (Hall Chairman) (1971) Resolutions of members of Residence Hall III, University of Dar es Salaam, 10 July 1971.
ACD-08: Moshi EA (DUSO Vice President) (1971) Letter of explanation to campus workers regarding events of 9 July 1971 (in Swahili and English), Dar es Salaam University Students’ Organization, 10 July 1971.
ACD-09: Kanywanyi JL and Malima KA (Ad Hoc Committee of Academic Staff) (1971) Recommendations of the university teaching and research staff, University of Dar es Salaam, 10 July 1971.
ACD-10: Moshi EA (DUSO Vice President) (1971) Letter to all students explaining the stand of the Academic Staff, Dar es Salaam University Students’ Organization, 10 July 1971.
ACD-11: Chenge A and Lyall A (Student and Lecturer, Faculty of Law) (1971) Memorandum on the legality of the recent actions taken by the Administration of the University of Dar es Salaam, UDSM Faculty of Law, 11 July 1971.
ACD-12: UDSM Academic Staff (1971) Memorandum to the Special Committee of the Council of the University of Dar es Salaam, University of Dar es Salaam, 11 July 1971.
ACD-13: Nsekela AJ (Chairman, Council of the University of Dar es Salaam) (1971) Council Resolutions, University of Dar es Salaam, 12 July 1971.
ACD-14: DUSO (1971) Letter to the Chancellor: An explanation of the students’ views, Dar es Salaam University Students’ Organization, 12 July 1971.
ACD-15: Swai FS (Speaker, DUSO) (1971) Letter to the Chancellor: Baraza resolutions, Dar es Salaam University Students’ Organization, 13 July 1971.
ACD-16: Moshi EA (Vice President, DUSO) and Dewji IM (DUSO Representative to the Council) (1971) Report of the Student Delegation to the Chancellor, Dar es Salaam University Students’ Organization, 14 July 1971.
ACD-17: DUSO (1971) DUSO News Bulletin – The University Echo, Dar es Salaam University Students Organization, 16 July 1971.
ACD-19: UDSM Workers’ Committee (1971) Grievances of the workers on the Hill (in Swahili), 12 July 1971, reported in summarized form in DUSO (1971), University of Dar es Salaam, 16 July 1971.
ACD-20: Moshi EA (Vice President, DUSO) (1971) Letter to all students: The situation at the moment, Dar es Salaam University Students’ Organization, 23 July 1971.
ACD-21: Wanyandeh AA (DUSO Minister for Campus Affairs) (1971) Letter to all students: Acute shortage of chairs and utensils, Dar es Salaam University Students Organization, 24 July 1971.
ACD-22: Kanywanyi JL and Malima KA (Academic Staff Ad Hoc Committee) (1971) A background to the Academic Staff Resolution of 10th July 1971, University of Dar es Salaam, 10 August 1971.
ACD-23: TYL (1971) MajiMaji, Issue No 3, August 1971 (with editorial and two reports on the Akivaga Crisis.
ACD-24: Mutalemwa CAK (DUSO Minister for Academic Affairs) (1972) Letter to students: Election of Student Representatives for Faculty Boards, Dar es Salaam University Students’ Organization, 10 November 1972.
Akivaga Crisis – Newspaper Reports
ACNR-01: Students boycott classes at the Hill, The Standard, 10 July 1971.
ACNR-02: University council to meet tomorrow, Sunday News, 11 July 1971.
ACNR-03: Staff want student back, Sunday News, 11 July 1971.
ACNR-04: Msekwa explains rustication, Sunday News, 11 July 1971.
ACNR-05: Editorial Opinion: University row, Sunday News, 11 July 1971.
ACNR-06: Varsity students stick to their resolutions, The Nationalist, 12 July 1971.
ACNR-07: Students discuss crisis at Hill, The Standard, 12 July 1971.
ACNR-08: University Council meets, The Standard, 13 July 1971.
ACNR-09: Varsity students told to go back to classes, The Nationalist, 13 July 1971.
ACNR-10: Five off to see Mwalimu on University crisis, The Standard, 14 July 1971.
ACNR-11: Editorial Comment, The Standard, 14 July 1971.
ACNR-12: Varsity students resume classes, The Nationalist, 14 July 1971.
ACNR-13: University team returns after talk with Mwalimu Nyerere, The Standard, 15 July 1971.
ACNR-14: Varsity delegates back from Dodoma, The Nationalist, 15 July 1971.
ACNR-15: DUSO reports back, The Standard, 16 July 1971.
ACNR-16: Nairobi students rap Dar ‘varsity, Daily Nation, 16 July 1971.
ACNR-17: Varsity probe team, The Nationalist, 26 July 1971.
ACNR-18: DUSO drafts appeal for Akivaga, The Standard, 27 July 1971.
ACNR-19: DUSO appeals against Akivaga’s suspension, The Nationalist, 27 July 1971.
ACNR-20: Committee on varsity crisis meets Tuesday, The Nationalist, 29 July 1971.
ACNR-21: Probe into Varsity crisis starts, The Nationalist, 4 August 1971.
ACNR-22: DUSO explains why students boycotted probe team, The Nationalist, 5 August 1971.
ACNR-23: Varsity Council c’ttee adopts procedure, The Nationalist, 6 August 1971.
ACNR-24: University committee making progress, The Standard, 10 August 1971.
ACNR-25: University expels Akivaga, The Standard, 20 August 1971.
ACNR-26: University student cabinet resigns, The Standard, 25 August 1971.
ACNR-27: TYL branch rejects Hill report recommendations by University probe team, The Standard, 29 November 1971.
ACNR-28: Hill TYL team to study report, The Standard, 30 November 1971.
ACNR-29: Tawi la vijana lapinga ripoti ya Mlimani, Uhuru, 11 December 1971.
ACNR-30: Why Hill TYL rejects Mungai report, The Standard, 16 December 1971.
ACNR-31: Missing features from the Mungai report, The Standard, 21 December 1971.
ACNR-32: University crisis, searching for compromise, The Standard, 22 December 1971.
Akivaga Crisis – Articles and Book Chapters
Chauhan R, Kavishe W and Minja F (1971) Editorial, MajiMaji, No. 3, August 1971:i–iii.
Douglas T (2007) The History of the University of Dar es Salaam: Chronicling the Importance of the Student Voice, Unpublished undergraduate thesis, Georgetown College, Washington, DC.
FouéréMA (editor) Remembering Nyerere in Tanzania: History, Memory, Legacy, Mkuki na Nyota Publishers, Dar es Salaam.
Hirji KF (1971) Crisis on the campus: Diagnosis and implications, MajiMaji, No. 3, August 1971:7–12.
Itandala B (2008) University of Dar es Salaam’s immediate response to Musoma Resolution, in IN Kimambo, BBB Mapunda and YQ Lawi (editors) (2008), pages 193–205.
Kimambo IN (2008) Establishment of the University of Dar es Salaam, in IN Kimambo, BBB Mapunda and YQ Lawi (editors) (2008), pages 152–169.
Kimambo IN, Mapunda BBB and Lawi YQ (editors) (2008) In Search of Relevance: A History of the University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam University Press, Dar es Salaam.
Lueshcher TM, Klemencic M and Jowi JO (editors) (2016), Student Politics in Africa: Representation and Activism, African Minds, Cape Town.
Mbwete TSA and Ishumi AGM (2000) Managing University Crises, Dar es Salaam University Press, Dar es Salaam.
Mihanjo EP (2008) Student and staff organizations, in IN Kimambo, BBB Mapunda and YQ Lawi (editors) (2008), pages 206–226.
Mkude D, Cooksey B and Levey L (2003) Higher Education in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam University Press, Dar es Salaam.
Msekwa P (2014) Uongozi na Utawala wa Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, Nyambari Nyangwine Publishers, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Ngirwa CC, Euwema M, Babyegeya E and Stouten J (2014) Managing change in higher education in Tanzania: A historical perspective, Higher Education Management and Policy, Volume 24/3, 127–144.
Njagi M (1971) The upheaval against bureaucratic arrogance, MajiMaji, No. 3, August 1971:1–6.
Oanda I (2016) The evolving nature of student participation in university governance in Africa: An overview of policies, trends and emerging issues, in TM Lueshcher, M Klemencic and JO Jowi (editors) (2016), chapter 4.
Omari JM and Mihyo PB (1991) The Roots of Student Unrest in African Universities, Man Graphics Limited, Nairobi.
Othman H (2005) Walter Rodney – A revolutionary intellectual, In SY Othman (editor) (2014), pages 299–302.
Othman SY (editor) (2014) Yes, in My Life Time: Selected Works of Haroub Othman, Mkuki na Nyota & CODESRIA, Dar es Salaam & Dakar.
Peter C and Mvungi S (1985) The state and student struggles, in IG Shivji (editor) (1985), pages 157–198.
Provini O (2015) The University of Dar es Salaam: A post-Nyerere institution of higher education? Legacies, continuation and changes, in MA Fouéré(editor) (2015), chapter 11.
Saul JS (1973) Radicalism and the Hill, in L Cliffe and JS Saul (editors) (1973), Volume II:289–292.
Saul JS (2009) Revolutionary Traveler: Freeze-Frames From a Life, Arbeiter Ring Publishing, Winnipeg, Canada.
Saul J (2011) Tanzanian socialism and Africa’s future: Mere footnote or first step on a long march, http://carleton.ca/africanstudies/wp-content/uploads/Saul-Nyerere-Carleton-2011.pdf.
Shivji IG (1980) Rodney and radicalism on the Hill, 1966–1974, in IG Shivji (1993), pages 32–40.
Shivji IG (1981) Freedom, democracy and apathy at the University, in IG Shivji (1993), pages 62–70.
Shivji IG (editor) (1985) The State and the Working People in Tanzania, CODESRIA Book Series, Dakar.
Shivji IG (1987) Debates at the Hill? In IG Shivji (1993), pages 129–155.
Shivji IG (1992) What is left of the left intellectual at ‘The Hill’? In IG Shivji (1993), pages 200–219.
Shivji IG (1993), Intellectuals at the Hill: Essays and Talks, 1969–1993, Dar es Salaam University Press, Dar es Salaam.
Shivji IG (2013) Chapter 8, in C Chung (editor) (2013) Walter A Rodney: A Promise of Revolution, Monthly Review Press, New York.
TANU (1971) Mwongozo: TANU Guidelines, National Printing Company, Dar es Salaam.
UDSM (1973) A Report on the Activities of UDSM for the Year 1971/72, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam.
UDSM (1974) A Report on the Activities of UDSM for the Year 1972/73, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam.
Note: The quotations given throughout the book are available at many websites on the Internet. Thus, I do not provide specific sources.
Photo and Image Credits
With the exception of Photo 5.0, all photos in this book belong to the author. Photo 5.0 is from The Standard, 9 July 1971.