Defining Collective efficacy

Bandura discovered an interesting pattern in one of his research studies (1977). He noticed that a group’s shared belief in its abilities seemed to be associated with much greater success. Bandura called this belief,  collective efficacy, and defined it as; ‘’a group’s shared belief in its conjoint capability to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given levels of attainment (Bandura, 1977, p.477).’’


How might building collective efficacy help your students build self-efficacy?

Collective efficacy is dependent on having an adequate level of trust and interdependence (researchnet, 2016).


Relationship of collective efficacy to team performance factors. from: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/1-Relationship-of-collective-efficacy-to-team-performance-factors-Based-on-1-we-can-see_fig4_36187153
Construction of a Cooperative Operation Avatar Robot System to Enhance. Retrieved on November 19, 2020, from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-89327-3_6
Choose a model above and talk about how you might use it to help you understand collective efficacy in the classroom.
How to measure collective efficacy

Below are three methods that have been used to assess collective efficacy in sports teams.

  1. Measure each athlete’s self-efficacy beliefs concerning a particular performance (e.g., how confident are you in your ability to…?) and then combine the team members’ self-efficacy measurements in some way.
  2. Measure each athlete’s collective efficacy beliefs concerning a particular performance (e.g., how confident are you in your team’s ability to…) and then combine the team members’ collective efficacy measurements in some way
  3. Use a group discussion to obtain a single, group-level measure of collective efficacy (Iresearchnet, 2016).

Write or discuss

  1. Do you think it’s important to measure collective efficacy?
  2. How might you adapt one or more of these methods to measure collective self-efficacy of classroom groups?
  3. Do you think teacher collective efficacy is important? How might you foster that amongst your colleagues? Read this article to learn more about this topic.


Sources of collective efficacy
‘’Past performance accomplishments have consistently been identified as one of the strongest sources of collective efficacy information, to date, it is also the most studied. There is evidence that past performance may also affect self-efficacy which then again can turn into affecting collective efficacy. One more efficacy belief that possibly serves as a source of collective efficacy information is role efficacy. The meaning of role efficacy is that when an athlete’s confidence in one’s capabilities to successfully carry out explicit collective role responsibilities within a group (Iresearchnet, 2016).’’
‘’Verbal persuasion has been shown to be an effective way to increase collective efficacy. For example, a motivational pregame speech delivered by a coach has been shown to increase collective efficacy. More generally, teams that exist within a more task-oriented motivational climate as compared to teams that exist within a more ego-oriented climate are believed to have greater collective efficacy due, in part, to the positive reinforcements that exist in such environments for more malleable outcomes than winning and losing (e.g., improvement, hard work, teamwork). Finally, a coach’s behaviour (e.g., communication style) in general is a key source of collective efficacy information (Iresearchnet, 2016).’’

Teacher self-efficacy

Teacher efficacy is the level of confidence teachers have in their ability to guide students to success. This includes helping students learn, building effective programs for students, and effectively changing student learning (Gkolia, Belia, & Koustelios, 2014; Leader in me, n.d.).

What positively impacts teacher efficacy?

It has been found that teacher efficacy is influenced by many things, most of which have positive impacts on student self- efficacy, for example:

  1. Teachers who support students to reach their full potential believe in an internal locus of control and generate different strategies, work together with colleagues and encourage students see themselves as capable .
  2. When a teacher has multiple roles within the school environment, it helps elevate a teachers’ sense of self-efficacy through a commitment to the school and an increased job satisfaction (Gkolia et al., 2014).
  3. When teachers are learning about new practices, students will benefit from this. In other words, students get better when teachers get better. When teachers come to think, know, understand, and practice differently in a demonstrable area of student learning needs, student achievement is positively impacted (Katz, Dack, & Malloy, 2017).
Collective teacher efficacy

Collective teacher efficacy is when a group of teachers share the belief in their own ability to positively affect students learning. Collective teacher efficacy is ranked as the NUMBER-ONE factor influencing student achievement (Hattie, 2016; Waack, 2018).

According to Hattie’s presentation at the Collaborative Impact Conference in 2017 ‘’collective teacher efficacy’’ is not just about teachers feeling good about themselves. It is much more complicated for a teacher than just to believe one can make a difference collectively (Waack, 2018).

Evidence of teacher efficacy

How do we recognize teacher efficacy? There are a couple of things that are visible in a school where there is teacher efficacy. First, when teachers show a positive attitude towards professional development (Rauf, Ali, Aluwi, & Noor, 2012). Secondly, when teachers exhibit deeper implementation of evidence-based instructional strategies (Cantrell & Callaway, 2008; Parks, Solmon, & Lee, 2007). Thirdly, when teachers have a stronger focus on academic pursuits (Hoy, Sweetland, & Smith, 2002). Lastly, when teachers have higher levels of motivation, relationship satisfaction, and are hell-bent to stay in the profession (Canrinus, Helms-Lorenz, Beijaard, Buitink, & Hofman, 2011; (Leader in me, n.d.).

Leader in me and teacher efficacy

The See-Do-Get Model (Covey, 1989) states that how we see things (our paradigm) affects what we do, and what we do impacts the results we get (Leader in me, n.d.).

When teachers see themselves as able to impact students’ learning, they insist on helping every student see and make them reach one’s full potential, which will then lead to higher student achievement. This cycle empowers teachers and increases their self- and collective efficacy (Leader in me, n.d.). The table is retrieved from (Leader in me, n.d.).

See Do Get
Leader in Me Core Paradigm: Everyone can be a leader. As the schoolwork’s through the Leader in Me whole-school improvement process, a system of shared leadership is built. Teachers are empowered to make more decisions, and professional-development opportunities contribute to personal and professional growth.
Leader in Me Core Paradigm: Everyone has genius. As a culture of leadership develops, teachers’ unique gifts and talents are recognized and opportunities to grow are put into place. Teachers feel valued for their skills, creating a supportive environment for all.
Leader in Me Core Paradigm: Change starts with me. Many of your students are having difficulty with the proper use of quotation marks.
Rather than assume students are not paying attention or do not care, you consider alternative strategies and instructional methods with colleagues. You choose several to try with students.

Teachers believe they have the ability to impact student learning.

Leader in Me Core Paradigm: Educators empower students to lead their own learning. Some of your students are having difficulty counting by 10s. You brainstorm various strategies with each of them and agree on one or two. Each student sets a goal and tracks his or her own progress. Teachers recognize they are impacting students by teaching them lifelong skills.

(Leader in me, n.d.).

Key Vocabulary
Words Definitions
Self-efficacy The belief you have in your own abilities to succeed in a certain situation (Cherry, 2020)
Confidence Feeling sure of yourself and your abilities (“Confidence,” n.d.)
Self-esteem How you feel about and judge your own worth and value (Ackerman, 2020)
Outcome expectancies What results or outcomes you think your behaviour will lead to (Maddux, 2009)
Motivation Your desire and will to achieve (Ackerman, 2020)
Mastery experiences Mastery experiences are performances that you successfully accomplish (Lopez-Garrido, 2020)
Vicarious experiences Observed performances and experiences of others like yourself (Self-efficacy toolkit, n.d.)
Social persuasions Getting verbal feedback/coaching about your task abilities (Self-efficacy toolkit, n.d.)
Physical and emotional states How you experience and deal with physical and emotional states when you are working on a task (Self-efficacy toolkit, n.d.)
Imaginal experiences Using your imagination to visualize your success on a task (Self-efficacy toolkit, n.d.)
Self-regulated learning Self-regulated learning works in a cycle. In this cycle you plan and set goals for a learning task, then you monitor how you are doing while working on the task and then you reflect on your learning and how you have done (Kirk, n.d.).
Academic self-efficacy The belief in your own abilities to succeed at a learning task or achieve a learning goal (Sharma & Nasa, 2014)
Influence The power or invisible action of a thing or person that causes some kind of effect on another (“Influence,” n.d.)
Negative Bad or harmful (“Negative,” n.d.)
Positive  Bringing some kind of good or giving some kind of advantage (“Positive,” n.d.)
Fear of failure Avoidance of situations that might lead to failure (OECD, 2019)
Depression A medical condition in which a person feels very sad and anxious and often has physical symptoms such as being unable to sleep, etc. (“Depression”, 2020).
Mindset A set of attitudes or fixed ideas that somebody has and that are often difficult to change. (“Mindset”, 2020).
Praise The expression of approval (“Praise,” n.d.)
Judgement An opinion or estimate formed by examining and comparing (“Judgement,”n.d.)
Modelling Setting an example (“Model,” n.d.)
Feedback Helpful information or criticism given to someone to indicate what can be done to improve something (“Feedback,” n.d.)
Perception A judgment resulting from awareness or understanding (“Perception,” n.d.)

The act or power of continuing to do something in spite of difficulties (“Perseverance,” n.d.)

Locus of control Focusses on looking at yourself, knowing one’s true self and being honest about it.
Teacher efficacy The level of confidence teachers have in their ability to guide students to success.
Collective efficacy Is a group’s shared belief in its conjoint capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given levels of attainments, that is, situation-specific confidence in a group’s ability (Bandura, 1997).



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