Achievement-oriented leaders strive for excellence and set challenging goals, constantly seeking improvement and exhibiting confidence that group members can meet their high expectations.

Action item meetings are short meetings to develop a common understanding of what the short-term priorities are for the project, individual roles, and expectations for specific activities.

ADDIE stands for; Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. Most of your projects will incorporate these procedures.

Additional Resources: Supplemental or complementary materials relevant to the module.

Analyse in this stage, identification of all the variables that need to be considered when designing the course, such as; learner characteristics, learners’ prior knowledge, resources available, learning environment, etc. are all considered prior to beginning the design process.

Animation means “to give life to” something.

ARCS refers to the attributes Attention, Relevance,Confidence, and Satisfaction. The ARCS model promotes student motivation.

Assessment involves determining how well students have achieved instructional goals and drives student behavior.

Asynchronous technologies enable participants to access information or communicate at different points of time, usually at the time and place of choice of the participant.

Attitudes involve how a student feels about the instruction, whether they will value or care about the material presented to them.

Audience (or learner) analysis include the learner’s motivation for taking the course, the course’s role in their career preparation, the purpose for taking the course and whether the learners need to engage in cognitive, effective, and psychomotor activities in order to master the contents.

Autocratic leaders set policies and make decisions primarily on their own, taking advantage of the power present in their title or status to set the agenda for the group.

Blog or Weblogs, typically, are personal Web sites operated by individuals who compile chronological lists of links to stuff that interests them, interspersed with information, editorializing and personal asides. A good weblog is updated often, in a kind of real-time improvisation, with pointers to interesting events, pages, stories and happenings elsewhere on the Web. New stuff piles on top of the page; older stuff sinks to the bottom.” (Rosenberg, 1999, para. 6).

Briefings are short presentations that either update listeners about recent events or provide instructions for how to do something job related (Adler & Elmhorst, 2005).

Captive Audiences are required to be present or feel obligated to do so.

Cognitive Restructuring entails changing the way we think about something.

Communication Apprehension (CA) is fear or anxiety experienced by a person due to real or perceived communication with another person or persons.

Computer-Based Resources for Learning (drill and practice, tutorials, simulations, educational games, intelligent tutoring systems, and virtual reality) support learners when more common online strategies will not suffice.

Computing as a medium would include animations, online social networking, using a search engine, or designing and using simulations.

COTS Games: Commercial off-the-shelf games.

Cross-functional teams address issues and work processes that include two or more of the functional teams.

Delegation is the art of creating a project organizational structure that can be managed and then matching the team members with the right skills to do that work.

Democratic leaders facilitate group discussion and like to take input from all members before making a decision.

Demographic information includes factors such as gender, age range, marital status, race and ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

Design this stage focuses on identifying the learning objectives for the course and how materials will be created and designed (for instance, it may include describing what content areas are to be covered and a storyboard outlining what will be covered in text, audio and video and in what order), and deciding on the selection and use of technology, such as an LMS, video or social media.

Develop the creation of content, including whether to develop in-house or outsource, copyright clearance for third party materials, loading of content into a web site or LMS, and so on.

Digital Stories are stories told via the use of technology.

Directive leaders help provide psychological structure for their group members by clearly communicating expectations, keeping a schedule and agenda, providing specific guidance as group members work toward the completion of their task, and taking the lead on setting and communicating group rules and procedures.

Downward Communication includes messages directed at audience members who hold a lower place on the organizational hierarchy than the sender.

Drill and Practice is a common computer-based training strategy that provides repeated activity (drill) and opportunities (practice) to try skills or concepts learned elsewhere. The aim is often to achieve mastery.

Educational Games are usually decision-making activities that include rules, a goal, conditions or constraints, competition, challenge, strategies, and feedback.

Educational technology is seen as tools used to support teaching and learning.

E-learning is characterized by the evolution of educational tools in a transitional period, that is, the use of computers for learning. Organizations produce checklists and guidelines to ensure quality from the early stages of design.

Emotional intelligence is the ability to sense, understand, and effectively apply the power and acumens of emotions as a source of human energy, information, connection, and influence.

Ethos is the term Aristotle used to refer to what we now call credibility: the perception that the speaker is honest, knowledgeable, and rightly motivated.

Evaluate feedback and data is collected in order to identify areas that require improvement and this feeds into the design, development and implementation of the next iteration of the course.

Executive Summary contains clear, concise, relevant information.

Focus Group (a small group of students) provides feedback to improve upon the design and delivery of a course.

Formative Feedback, collected during an ongoing course, improves that specific course.

Functional team refers to the team approach related to the project functions.

Game a set of activities with goals, rules, and competition (possibly with oneself) that involve one or more players in an artificial situation (Dempsey et al., 1996; Sauvé et al., under review).

Goal Analysis includes classifying the instructional goal into the domain, or kind of learning that will occur and results in a visual statement of what the learner will be able to do.

Hierarchical Module  a common mode of organization involving a sections, lessons, supportive activities approach.

Horizontal Communication is with our colleagues or people who are on the same approximate level in the organizational hierarchy.

Hypertext is text that is linked to other information.

Implement  this is the actual delivery of the course, including any prior training or briefing of learner support staff, and student assessment.

Innovation is a creative process that requires both fun and focus.

Instructional Design (ID) is a process of resolving instructional problems through systematic analysis of learning conditions. ID is a systematic, repetitive process of activities aimed at creating a solution for an instructional problem.

Instructional Designer Role involves working with course layout, branching, and positioning the written content within the online environment. Often the designer is involved with determining the course module or lesson objectives, the evaluative components, and may help the content writer and/or expert to develop the content.

Instructional Events (gaining attention, informing the learner of the learning outcome, stimulating recall of prerequisites, presenting the material, providing learning guidance, eliciting the performance, providing feedback, assessing performance, and enhancing retention and transfer) represent what should be done to ensure that learning occurs.

Instructional Strategy describes the instructional materials and procedures that enable students to achieve the learning outcomes.

Intellectual skills are those that require learners to think (rather than simply memorizing and recalling information).

Intelligent Tutoring Systems attempt to mimic the “perfect instructor”. The basic requirements of an intelligent tutoring system include the ability to: 1) model the learner, 2) track misunderstandings, and 3) generate appropriate responses.

Interpersonal communication is the process of exchanging messages between people whose lives mutually influence one another in unique ways in relation to social and cultural norms.

Interpersonal conflict occurs in interactions where there are real or perceived incompatible goals, scarce resources, or opposing viewpoints.

Intercultural communication competence (ICC) is the ability to communicate effectively and appropriately in various cultural contexts.

Laissez-faire leaders take a “hands-off” approach, preferring to give group members freedom to reach and implement their own decisions.

Leadership is a complex system of beliefs, communication patterns, and behaviors that influence the functioning of a group and move a group toward the completion of its task.

Leadership meetings are held less frequently and are longer in length. These meetings are used by the project manager to reflect on the project, to explore the larger issues of the project, and to back away from the day-to-day problem solving.

Learner Analysis involves asking questions that elicit information about the learners’ abilities, language skills, motivation, and interests as well as observe typical learners is a way to determine learner’s entry skill.

Learner-Centered Design (LCD) is focused on making users more effective e-learners, user-centred design (UCD) is focused on making e-learners effective users in order to free them from cognitive and physical constraints, making the system easy to use.

Learning Domain Classification verbal information, intellectual skills and cognitive strategies, psychomotor skills, and attitudes.

Learning Management System or (LMS) is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of electronic educational technology courses or training programs. Canvas, Blackboard, EdX, Schoology, Moodle are popular examples of learning management systems.

Learning Outcomes are what the student should know, or be able to accomplish at the end of the course or learning unit.

Learning style models highlight student preferences and  natural tendencies for processing information and understanding content.

Lecture capture enable lectures to be recorded, stored and downloaded by students.

Management meetings are longer in duration and are focused on planning. They are oriented toward developing plans, tracking progress of existing plans, and making adjustments to plans in response to new information.

Media can be defined as requiring the active creation of content and/or communication, and someone who receives and understands the communication, as well as the technologies that carry the medium.

Mid-Semester Survey, a questionnaire that surveys every student enrolled in a course at the mid-term mark and provides valuable feedback that identifies areas needing improvement in a course.

Module Learning Objectives: These objectives should be the specific outcomes that relate to each individual module, not the objectives that relate to the entire course.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is one of most widely used tools for exploring personal preference, with more than two million people taking the MBTI each year. The MBTI is often referred to as simply the Myers Briggs. It is a tool that can be used in project management training to develop awareness of preferences for processing information and relationships with other people.

Navigation can be as simple as a set of uniform buttons placed strategically in the same place on every page.

Needs Assessment is a method for determining the actual problem, rather than the symptoms of a problem.

Negotiation is a process for developing a mutually acceptable outcome when the desired outcome for each party conflicts.

One-Sentence Summary is another classroom assessment technique that can be adapted to an online environment.

Online Suggestion Boxes are unstructured activities that capture voluntary comments at irregular intervals throughout an entire term.

Overview: A general statement about the nature of the module and its relation to the course as a whole.

Participative leaders work to include group members in the decision-making process by soliciting and considering their opinions and suggestions. When group members feel included, their personal goals are more likely to align with the group and organization’s goals, which can help productivity.

Personality types refer to the differences among people in such matters as what motivates them, how they process information, how they handle conflict, etc.

Physical Relaxation Exercises (such as deep breathing, stretching, visual imagery) counteract the general physical signs of anxiety caused by cortisol and adrenaline release.

Problem-solving teams are assigned to address specific issues that arise during the life of the project.

Project culture represents the shared norms, beliefs, values, and assumptions of the project team.

Project managers create a team that is goal focused and energized around the success of the project.

Psychographic information, which includes such things as values, opinions, attitudes, and beliefs.

Psychomotor skills are those that require learners to carry out muscular actions.

Qualitative Research focuses on describing and interpreting social phenomena using data collected through methods such as participant observation and interviewing—in short, watching and/or talking to people.

Quality Assessment is a diagnostic review and evaluation of teaching, learning, and outcomes based on detailed examination of curricula, structure, and effectiveness.

Quality Assurance (QA) is a planned and systematic review process of an institution or program to determine that acceptable standards for learner-centered education, scholarship, pedagogic culture and expertise, infrastructure, and organizational strategy and vision, are being maintained and enhanced.

Quality Improvement refers to expectations that an institution will have to plan, monitor and improve the quality of its programs.

Quantitative Research seeks to use data to describe and explain social phenomena in objective and precise ways so their findings can be generalized to larger populations.

Relevance helps the student to want to learn the material by helping them understand how the material relates to their needs or how it can relate to improving their future.

Reports are more substantial presentations on the progress or status of a task and can focus on the past, present, or future.

Script is simply the words used to accompany the digital images of the story, and creating it at this point will help students plan the development process,

Sequencing would follow the units of study and structure determined beforehand, moving from general to specific.

Simulation is a dynamic, simplified but accurate systems model of aspects of reality (Sauve’ et al., under review).

Simulation Game refers to these hybrids and includes a wide variety of commercial games that simulate real-world activities.

Simulations present or model the essential elements of real or imaginary situations. Computer-based simulations (e.g., flight simulators) allow students to learn by manipulating the model in similar ways to real world situations.

Situational Audience Analysis because it focuses on characteristics related to the specific speaking situation.

Skills Training is a strategy for managing public speaking anxiety that focuses on learning skills that will improve specific speaking behaviors.

Speaking Anxiety is a natural and normal fear, it can interfere with verbal and nonverbal delivery, which makes a speech less effective.

Storyboards are visual organizers that have been used by developers of films, videos, television shows, and multimedia for years.

Stress is a biological reaction to perceived threats.

Subject Matter Experts (SME) are the content specialists in a specific academic discipline.

Subordinate Skills Analysis is a process for determining the skills that must be learned before performing a step

Summative Feedback, collected after a course ends, improves the next iterations. Feedback that applies to the instructor’s process can also improve other courses.

Supportive leaders show concern for their followers’ needs and emotions.

Synchronous technologies require all those participating in the communication to participate together, at the same time, but not necessarily in the same place.

Systematic Desensitization refers to the fact that we become less anxious about something when we are exposed to it more often (Bodie, 2010).

“Take-Home Message” one concept or finding that captures the combined importance of all the data and findings.

Teaching Effectiveness describes instructors’ ability to affect student success.

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge is the use of technology in teaching certain materials.

Technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems.

Training includes presentations that prepare new employees for their jobs or provide instruction or development opportunities for existing employees.

Tutorials are programs in which the computer imitates a human tutor. In tutorials, information or concepts are presented, questions are asked, responses are judged, and feedback is provided.

Upward Communication includes speeches, proposals, or briefings that are directed at audience members who hold higher positions in the organizational hierarchy than the sender.

Verbal information is material, such as names of objects, that students simply have to memorize and recall.

Virtual Reality (VR) allows people to be totally immersed in an artificial or simulated environment, while experiencing the environment as real.

Vocal Warm-up Exercises warm up your face and mouth muscles, which can help prevent some of the fluency issues that occur when speaking.

Voluntary Audiences gather because they want to hear the speech, attend the event, or participate in an event.

Wikis are collaboratively editable websites that can be used for various purposes. They are particularly well suited to taking students who are already competent bloggers to the next level.

Wikipedia is now the best-known wiki in existence.



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Experiential Learning in Instructional Design and Technology Copyright © 2018 by jhill5; Joshua Hill; and Linda Jordan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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