9 Beowulf

“Vikingaskepp på havet. Sköldar hänger längst relingen” by Swedish National Maritime Museums under CC Share-Alike 3.0. Wikimedia Commons.


by Allegra Villarreal


An epic poem of 3,182 lines, Beowulf is regarded as one of (if not the) most important works of Old English literature. This poem is known from a single manuscript found in the Nowell Codex, and dated to 1,000 CE. It suffered damage in 1731, during the Cotton Library fire at Ashburham House where it had been stored; efforts to bind and restore it were made but in the process some letters were lost.  Thankfully, the original was transcribed long before, likely by two different monks, the latter of whom  is also thought to be the scribe of Judith (which may account for their similarities in writing style). This manuscript also includes accounts of saints’ lives and tales of travel to the Orient; while wildly different in terms of content, all the stories in the Nowell codex focus on heroes and monsters, good and evil. Beowulf, as a literary work, represents the culmination of an era of early English history; several decades after its transcription, the Normans would invade and bring with them new customs, language and forever transform English literature.


Story Summary

This story, while written in England, is set in Scandinavia and follows the exploits of a great warrior of the Geats, Beowulf. At the story’s open, he appears to the aid of the Danes and their king, Hrothgar, by slaying a monster known as Grendel who has been attacking the mead-hall of Heorot for years. In the aftermath, Grendel’s mother is enraged to the point of attacking the mead-hall herself; she too is ultimately killed by Beowulf. Victorious, he sails back to his homeland and becomes king of the Geats, reigning without significant incident for 50 years. In old age, Beowulf must again take up arms to defeat a dragon who hoards gems and shining weapons. Though he wins handedly, he is mortally wounded in the process and dies as a revered warrior king.



The story is often divided into three parts (each devoted to the slaying of a monster) and though it may seem that the focus here is on the exploits of battle, there are some deeper themes here. The first monster, Grendel, is identified as “one of Cain’s clan” – a monster that is also vaguely human, an outcast who is “spurned and joyless.” He envies the comradery of Hrothgar’s men, their closeness as a tribe. When he is killed, it is maternal anguish that motivates his unnamed mother to avenge the death of her son and when he enters the dragon’s lair, it is Beowulf who is called “invader” (Puchner 887). The line between monster and man is murkier than one might, at first, assume. Similarly, the ties of kinship and clan speak to the importance of communal life during this time as an antidote to solitude and protection against certain death. In many ways, this story explores what it means to be human, to be part of a collective, and, most importantly, what the nature of heroism truly is.


Historical Background

The story appears to be set in the sixth century, a time when the British Isles were first settled by Germanic tribes from the north. These tribes likely brought with them folktales and songs from their native lands which may have filtered their way, thematically and linguistically, into this tale. We date it to this time as it does feature historical figures (such as Beowulf’s lord, Hygelac, who died around 520) though there is no known historical figure called “Beowulf”  (Robinson 14).

The poem was recorded by Christian Anglo-Saxons, though it is set during a time period when the characters themselves would have held pagan beliefs. The Germanic warrior society presented shows the importance of hierarchy in that context, and while some scholars point to a particularly Christian or pagan reading of the text, what is certain is that there are only allusions to the Old Testament and Christ is never mentioned. Richard North, in discussing this ambiguity states: “As yet we are no closer to finding out why the first audience of Beowulf liked to hear stories about people routinely classified as damned. This question is pressing, given… that Anglo-Saxons saw the Danes as ‘heathens’ rather than as foreigners” (qtd. in “Beowulf”).


Literary Style

While it was written in 1000 CE, it likely has an older provenance through oral storytelling; those listening to the tale in the year 1,000 would have found its antiquated language strange and removed even in its own day. Written in a West Saxon dialect of Anglo-Saxon/Old English, the poem is most notable for its use of alliteration (repeated initial consonants), which is different from the French-inspired forms that would later dominate English poetry. The poem also consists of half lines, with two stressed words each, followed by a “caesura” or natural pause (Catlin). This lends a rhythm to the reading that is entirely different from other forms such as the iambic pentameter (which was also inherited from the French). An example can be found here as Justin A. Jackson, Professor of English, reads the opening lines.

Another standard feature of Anglo-Saxon (and Norse) writing is its use of kennings: a type of metaphor that signifies a person or thing by a characteristic or quality; examples from Beowulf include: “dwelling place” for residence, “earth hall” for burial mounds, “stout hearted” for bravery and “helmet bearer” for warrior (Paradine). This metaphoric language adds another level of meaning to a revered and often challenging text.

Works Cited

“Beowulf.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 24 Jan. 2019. Web. 29 Jan. 2019. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beowulf

Catlin, Sally. “Anglo-Saxon Alliterative Epics.” Vision: A Resource for Writers, 2002. http://fmwriters.com/Visionback/Issue9/poetry.htm

Paradine, Gerald. “Kennings.” Pace University, n.d. http://csis.pace.edu/grendel/projs991b/kenning.html

Puchner, Martin, ed. The Norton Anthology of World Literature. Norton, 2013.

Robinson, Bonnie J. and Getty, Laura, British Literature I: Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century and Neoclassicism. English Open Textbooks, 2018. https://oer.galileo.usg.edu/english-textbooks/17



Discussion Questions

  1. While Beowulf is seen as an ideal character and hero, was there anything lacking in his character that makes him less honorable?
  2. Compare Beowulf to what we consider to be a hero in today’s society. How do they differ?
  3. Does the heroic code expressed in Beowulf conflict with a Christian sensibility?
  4. What is the status of gold and gift-giving in the poem? Who gives gifts, who receives them, and why? Are the modern concepts of wealth, payment, monetary worth and greed appropriate for the world of Beowulf?
  5. Can Beowulf’s journey be better described as an attempt to find oneself or to actually protect Herot, the Danes, and eventually his own life?

Further Resources

  • A podcast covering the history, culture and literary value of Beowulf (from the “In Our Time” BBC series).
  • An infographic depicting the intersection of Beowulf and our modern pop culture (in terms of monsters and dragons).
  • An audiobook version of Beowulf Parts I & II.
  • A video clip of plot summary and key themes/motifs by Thug Notes. Wisecrack. “Thug Notes: Beowulf.” Youtube.com. 24 Sept. 2013.


Reading: Beowulf

I. The Life and Death of Scyld

Lo! the Spear-Danes’ glory through splendid achievements The famous race of Spear-Danes.
The folk-kings’ former fame we have heard of,
How princes displayed then their prowess-in-battle.
Oft Scyld the Scefing from scathers in numbers Scyld, their mighty king,
5 From many a people their mead-benches tore. in honor of whom they are often called Scyldings.
Since first he found him friendless and wretched,
He is the great-grandfather of Hrothgar,
The earl had had terror: comfort he got for it,
so prominent in the poem.
Waxed ’neath the welkin, world-honor gained,
Till all his neighbors o’er sea were compelled to
Bow to his bidding and bring him their tribute:
An excellent atheling! After was borne him
A son and heir, young in his dwelling, A son is born to him
Whom God-Father sent to solace the people.
who receives the name of Beowulf—
That reaved of their rulers they wretched had erstwhile
a name afterwards made so
Long been afflicted. The Lord, in requital,
famous by the hero of the poem
Wielder of Glory, with world-honor blessed him.
Famed was Beowulf, far spread the glory
Of Scyld’s great son in the lands of the Danemen.
So the carle that is young, by kindnesses rendered
The ideal Teutonic king lavishes gifts
The friends of his father, with fees in abundance
on his vassals.
Must be able to earn that when age approacheth
Eager companions aid him requitingly,
When war assaults him serve him as liegemen:
By praise-worthy actions must honor be got
’Mong all of the races. At the hour that was fated
Scyld then departed to the All-Father’s keeping
Warlike to wend him; away then they bare him
Scyld dies at the hour appointed by Fate.
To the flood of the current, his fond-loving comrades,
As himself he had bidden, while the friend of the Scyldings
Word-sway wielded, and the well-lovèd land-prince
Long did rule them.3 The ring-stemmèd vessel,

Bark of the atheling, lay there at anchor,

The belovèd leader laid they down there,
By his own request, his body is
Giver of rings, on the breast of the vessel,
laid on a vessel and wafted
The famed by the mainmast. A many of jewels,
Of fretted embossings, from far-lands brought over,
Was placed near at hand then; and heard I not ever
That a folk ever furnished a float more superbly
With weapons of warfare, weeds for the battle,
Bills and burnies; on his bosom sparkled
Many a jewel that with him must travel
On the flush of the flood afar on the current.
And favors no fewer they furnished him soothly,
Excellent folk-gems, than others had given him
Who when first he was born outward did send him
He leaves Daneland on the breast
Lone on the main, the merest of infants:
of a bark.
And a gold-fashioned standard they stretched under heaven
High o’er his head, let the holm-currents bear him,
Seaward consigned him: sad was their spirit,
Their mood very mournful. Men are not able
Soothly to tell us, they in halls who reside,
No one knows whither the boat drifted.
Heroes under heaven, to what haven he hied.

II. Scyld’s Successors–Hrothgar’s Great Mead-Hall

In the boroughs then Beowulf, bairn of the Scyldings,
Beowulf succeeds his father Scyld.
Belovèd land-prince, for long-lasting season
Was famed mid the folk (his father departed,
The prince from his dwelling), till afterward sprang
Great-minded Healfdene; the Danes in his lifetime
He graciously governed, grim-mooded, agèd.
Four bairns of his body born in succession
Healfdene’s birth.
Woke in the world, war-troopers’ leader
Heorogar, Hrothgar, and Halga the good;
10 Heard I that Elan was Ongentheow’s consort,
The well-beloved bedmate of the War-Scylfing leader.
He has three sons–one of them,
Then glory in battle to Hrothgar was given,
Hrothgar–and a daughter named
Waxing of war-fame, that willingly kinsmen
Elan. Hrothgar becomes a mighty king.
Obeyed his bidding, till the boys grew to manhood,
A numerous band. It burned in his spirit
To urge his folk to found a great building,
A mead-hall grander than men of the era
He is eager to build a great hall
Ever had heard of, and in it to share
in which he may feast his retainers.
With young and old all of the blessings
20 The Lord had allowed him, save life and retainers.
Then the work I find afar was assigned
To many races in middle-earth’s regions,
To adorn the great folk-hall. In due time it happened
Early ’mong men, that ’twas finished entirely,
25 The greatest of hall-buildings; Heorot he named it
Who wide-reaching word-sway wielded ’mong earlmen.
The hall is completed, called Heorot.
His promise he brake not, rings he lavished,
Treasure at banquet. Towered the hall up
High and horn-crested, huge between antlers:
It battle-waves bided, the blasting fire-demon;
Ere long then from hottest hatred must sword-wrath
Arise for a woman’s husband and father.
Then the mighty war-spirit endured for a season,
Bore it bitterly, he who bided in darkness, The monster Grendal is madly
That light-hearted laughter loud in the building
envious of the Danemen’s joy.
Greeted him daily; there was dulcet harp-music,
Clear song of the singer. He said that was able
To tell from of old earthmen’s beginnings,
[The course of the story is interreupted
That Father Almighty earth had created,
by a short reference to an old
The winsome wold that the water encircleth,
account of the creation.]
Set exultingly the sun’s and the moon’s beams
To lavish their lustre on land-folk and races,
And earth He embellished in all her regions
With limbs and leaves; life He bestowed too
45 On all the kindreds that live under heaven.
So blessed with abundance, brimming with joyance,
The glee of the warriors is overcast
The warriors abided, till a certain one gan to
by a horrible dread.
Dog them with deeds of direfullest malice,
A foe in the hall-building: this horrible stranger
Was Grendel entitled, the march-stepper famous
Who dwelt in the moor-fens, the marsh and the fastness;
The wan-mooded being abode for a season
In the land of the giants, when the Lord and Creator
Had banned him and branded. For that bitter murder,
55 The killing of Abel, all-ruling Father
The kindred of Cain crushed with His vengeance;
Cain is referred to as a progenitor
In the feud He rejoiced not, but far away drove him
of Grendal, and of monsters
From kindred and kind, that crime to atone for,
in general.
Meter of Justice. Thence ill-favored creatures,
Elves and giants, monsters of ocean,
Came into being, and the giants that longtime
Grappled with God; He gave them requital.

III. Grendal the Murderer

When the sun was sunken, he set out to visit
The lofty hall-building, how the Ring-Danes had used it
For beds and benches when the banquet was over.
Then he found there reposing many a noble
Asleep after supper; sorrow the heroes,
Misery knew not. The monster of evil
Greedy and cruel tarried but little,
Fell and frantic, and forced from their slumbers
He drags off 30 of them, and devours them.
Thirty of thanemen; thence he departed
Leaping and laughing, his lair to return to,
With surfeit of slaughter sallying homeward.
In the dusk of the dawning, as the day was just breaking,
Was Grendel’s prowess revealed to the warriors:
Then, his meal-taking finished, a moan was uplifted, A cry of agony goes up, when Grendel’s
Morning-cry mighty. The man-ruler famous,
horrible deed is fully realized.
The long-worthy atheling, sat very woful,
Suffered great sorrow, sighed for his liegemen,
When they had seen the track of the hateful pursuer,
The spirit accursèd: too crushing that sorrow,
Too loathsome and lasting. Not longer he tarried,
The monster returns the following night.
But one night after continued his slaughter
Shameless and shocking, shrinking but little
From malice and murder; they mastered him fully.
He was easy to find then who otherwhere looked for
A pleasanter place of repose in the lodges,
A bed in the bowers. Then was brought to his notice
Told him truly by token apparent
The hall-thane’s hatred: he held himself after
Further and faster who the foeman did baffle.
So ruled he and strongly strove against justice
Lone against all men, till empty uptowered
The choicest of houses. Long was the season:
King Hrothgar’s agony and suspense
Twelve-winters’ time torture suffered
last 12 years.
The friend of the Scyldings, every affliction,
Endless agony; hence it after3 became
Certainly known to the children of men
Sadly in measures, that long against Hrothgar
Grendel struggled:—his grudges he cherished,
Murderous malice, many a winter,
Strife unremitting, and peacefully wished he
4Life-woe to lift from no liegeman at all of
The men of the Dane-folk, for money to settle,
No counsellor needed count for a moment
On handsome amends at the hands of the murderer;
The monster of evil fiercely did harass,
Grendel’s unremitting in his persecutions.
The ill-planning death-shade, both elder and younger,
Trapping and tricking them. He trod every night then
The mist-covered moor-fens; men do not know where
Witches and wizards wander and ramble.
So the foe of mankind many of evils
Grievous injuries, often accomplished,
Horrible hermit; Heort he frequented,
Gem-bedecked palace, when night-shades had fallen
(Since God did oppose him, not the throne could he touch,
The light-flashing jewel, love of Him knew not).
God is against the monster.
’Twas a fearful affliction to the friend of the Scyldings
Soul-crushing sorrow. Not seldom in private
Sat the king in his council; conference held they
The king and his council deliberate
What the braves should determine ’gainst terrors unlooked for.
in vain; they pray to their gods.
At the shrines of their idols often they promised
Gifts and offerings, earnestly prayed they
The devil from hell would help them to lighten
Their people’s oppression. Such practice they used then,
Hope of the heathen; hell they remembered
65 In innermost spirit, God they knew not,
Judge of their actions, All-wielding Ruler,
No praise could they give the Guardian of Heaven,
The true God they do not know.
The Wielder of Glory. Woe will be his who
Through furious hatred his spirit shall drive to
The clutch of the fire, no comfort shall look for,
Wax no wiser; well for the man who,
Living his life-days, his Lord may face
And find defence in his Father’s embrace!

IV. Beowulf goes to Hrothgar’s Assistance

So Healfdene’s kinsman constantly mused on
Hrothgar sees no way of escape from
His long-lasting sorrow; the battle-thane clever
the persecution of Grendel.
Was not anywise able evils to ’scape from:
Too crushing the sorrow that came to the people,
5 Loathsome and lasting the life-grinding torture,
Greatest of night-woes. So Higelac’s liegeman,
Beowulf, the Geat, hero of the poem,
Good amid Geatmen, of Grendel’s achievements
hears of Hrothgar’s sorrow, and
Heard in his home:1 of heroes then living
resolves to go to his assistance.
He was stoutest and strongest, sturdy and noble.
He bade them prepare him a bark that was trusty;
He said he the war-king would seek o’er the ocean,
The folk-leader noble, since he needed retainers.
For the perilous project prudent companions
Chided him little, though loving him dearly;
15 They egged the brave atheling, augured him glory.
The excellent knight from the folk of the Geatmen
With 14 carefully chosen companions,
Had liegemen selected, likest to prove them
he sets out for Daneland.
Trustworthy warriors; with fourteen companions
The vessel he looked for; a liegeman then showed them,
A sea-crafty man, the bounds of the country.
Fast the days fleeted; the float was a-water,
The craft by the cliff. Clomb to the prow then
Well-equipped warriors: the wave-currents twisted
The sea on the sand; soldiers then carried
On the breast of the vessel bright-shining jewels,
Handsome war-armor; heroes outshoved then,
Warmen the wood-ship, on its wished-for adventure.
The foamy-necked floater fanned by the breeze,
The vessel sailed like a bird.
Likest a bird, glided the waters,
Till twenty and four hours thereafter
In 24 hours they reach the shores
The twist-stemmed vessel had traveled such distance
of Hrothgar’s dominions.
That the sailing-men saw the sloping embankments,
The sea cliffs gleaming, precipitous mountains,
Nesses enormous: they were nearing the limits
At the end of the ocean. Up thence quickly
The men of the Weders clomb to the mainland,
Fastened their vessel (battle weeds rattled,
War burnies clattered), the Wielder they thanked
That the ways o’er the waters had waxen so gentle.
Then well from the cliff edge the guard of the Scyldings
They are hailed by the Danish coast
Who the sea-cliffs should see to, saw o’er the gangway
Brave ones bearing beauteous targets,
Armor all ready, anxiously thought he,
Musing and wondering what men were approaching.
High on his horse then Hrothgar’s retainer
Turned him to coastward, mightily brandished
His lance in his hands, questioned with boldness.
“Who are ye men here, mail-covered warriors
Clad in your corslets, come thus a-driving
His challenge.
A high riding ship o’er the shoals of the waters,
And hither ’neath helmets have hied o’er the ocean?
I have been strand-guard, standing as warden,
Lest enemies ever anywise ravage
Danish dominions with army of war-ships.
More boldly never have warriors ventured
Hither to come; of kinsmen’s approval,
Word-leave of warriors, I ween that ye surely
Nothing have known. Never a greater one
Of earls o’er the earth have I had a sight of
He is struck by Beowulf’s appearance.
Than is one of your number, a hero in armor;
No low-ranking fellow4 adorned with his weapons,
But launching them little, unless looks are deceiving,
And striking appearance. Ere ye pass on your journey
As treacherous spies to the land of the Scyldings
And farther fare, I fully must know now
What race ye belong to. Ye far-away dwellers,
Sea-faring sailors, my simple opinion
Hear ye and hearken: haste is most fitting
Plainly to tell me what place ye are come from.”

V. The Geats Reach Heorot

The chief of the strangers rendered him answer,
Beowulf courteously replies.
War-troopers’ leader, and word-treasure opened:
“We are sprung from the lineage of the people of Geatland,
We are Geats.
And Higelac’s hearth-friends. To heroes unnumbered
My father was known, a noble head-warrior
My father Ecgtheow was well-known
Ecgtheow titled; many a winter
in his day.
He lived with the people, ere he passed on his journey,
Old from his dwelling; each of the counsellors
Widely mid world-folk well remembers him.
We, kindly of spirit, the lord of thy people,
Our intentions towards King Hrothgar
The son of King Healfdene, have come here to visit,
are of the kindest.
Folk-troop’s defender: be free in thy counsels!
To the noble one bear we a weighty commission,
The helm of the Danemen; we shall hide, I ween,
Naught of our message. Thou know’st if it happen,
Is it true that a monster is slaying
As we soothly heard say, that some savage despoiler,
Danish heroes?
Some hidden pursuer, on nights that are murky
By deeds very direful ’mid the Danemen exhibits
Hatred unheard of, horrid destruction
20 And the falling of dead. From feelings least selfish
I am able to render counsel to Hrothgar,
I can help your king to free himself
How he, wise and worthy, may worst the destroyer,
from his horrible creature.
If the anguish of sorrow should ever be lessened,
Comfort come to him, and care-waves grow cooler,
Or ever hereafter he agony suffer
And troublous distress, while towereth upward
The handsomest of houses high on the summit.”
Bestriding his stallion, the strand-watchman answered,
The coast-guard reminds Beowulf
The doughty retainer: “The difference surely
that it is easier to say than to do.
’Twixt words and works, the warlike shield-bearer
Who judgeth wisely well shall determine.
This band, I hear, beareth no malice
To the prince of the Scyldings. Pass ye then onward
I am satisfied of your good intentions
With weapons and armor. I shall lead you in person;
and shall lead you to the palace.
To my war-trusty vassals command I shall issue
To keep from all injury your excellent vessel,
Your fresh-tarred craft, ’gainst every opposer
Your boat shall be well cared for
Close by the sea-shore, till the curved-neckèd bark shall
during your stay here.
Waft back again the well-beloved hero
40 O’er the way of the water to Weder dominions.
To warrior so great ’twill be granted sure
He again compliments Beowulf.
In the storm of strife to stand secure.”
Onward they fared then (the vessel lay quiet,
The broad-bosomed bark was bound by its cable,
Firmly at anchor); the boar-signs glistened
Bright on the visors vivid with gilding,
Blaze-hardened, brilliant; the boar acted warden.
The heroes hastened, hurried the liegemen,
Descended together, till they saw the great palace, The land is perhaps rolling.
50 The well-fashioned wassail-hall wondrous and gleaming:
’Mid world-folk and kindreds that was widest reputed
Heorot flashes on their view.
Of halls under heaven which the hero abode in;
Its lustre enlightened lands without number.
Then the battle-brave hero showed them the glittering
Court of the bold ones, that they easily thither
Might fare on their journey; the aforementioned warrior
Turning his courser, quoth as he left them:
“’Tis time I were faring; Father Almighty
The coast-guard, having discharged
Grant you His grace, and give you to journey
his duty, bids them God-speed.
Safe on your mission! To the sea I will get me
’Gainst hostile warriors as warden to stand.”

VI. Beowulf Introduces Himself at the Palace

The highway glistened with many-hued pebble,
A by-path led the liegemen together.
Firm and hand-locked the war-burnie glistened,
The ring-sword radiant rang ’mid the armor
5 As the party was approaching the palace together
In warlike equipments. ’Gainst the wall of the building
They set their arms and armor against
Their wide-fashioned war-shields they weary did set then,
the wall.
Battle-shields sturdy; benchward they turned then;
Their battle-sarks rattled, the gear of the heroes;
The lances stood up then, all in a cluster,
The arms of the seamen, ashen-shafts mounted
With edges of iron: the armor-clad troopers
Were decked with weapons. Then a proud-mooded hero
A Danish hero asks them whence and
Asked of the champions questions of lineage:
why they are come.
“From what borders bear ye your battle-shields plated,
Gilded and gleaming, your gray-colored burnies,
Helmets with visors and heap of war-lances?—
To Hrothgar the king I am servant and liegeman.
’Mong folk from far-lands found I have never
Men so many of mien more courageous.
He expresses no little admiration
I ween that from valor, nowise as outlaws,
for the strangers.
But from greatness of soul ye sought for King Hrothgar.”
Then the strength-famous earlman answer rendered,
Beowulf replies.
The proud-mooded Wederchief replied to his question,
Hardy ’neath helmet: “Higelac’s mates are we;
We are Higelac’s table-companions,
Beowulf hight I. To the bairn of Healfdene,
and bear an important commission to
The famous folk-leader, I freely will tell
your prince.
To thy prince my commission, if pleasantly hearing
He’ll grant we may greet him so gracious to all men.”
Wulfgar replied then (he was prince of the Wendels,
His boldness of spirit was known unto many,
His prowess and prudence): “The prince of the Scyldings,
The friend-lord of Danemen, I will ask of thy journey,
Wulfgar, the thane, says that he will go
The giver of rings, as thou urgest me do it,
and ask Hrothgar whether he will see
The folk-chief famous, and inform thee early
the strangers.
What answer the good one mindeth to render me.”
He turned then hurriedly where Hrothgar was sitting,
Old and hoary, his earlmen attending him;
The strength-famous went till he stood at the shoulder
Of the lord of the Danemen, of courteous thanemen
The custom he minded. Wulfgar addressed then
His friendly liegelord: “Folk of the Geatmen
O’er the way of the waters are wafted hither,
He thereupon urges his liegelord to receive
Faring from far-lands: the foremost in rank
the visitors courteously.
The battle-champions Beowulf title.
They make this petition: with thee, O my chieftain,
To be granted a conference; O gracious King Hrothgar,
Friendly answer refuse not to give them!
In war-trappings weeded worthy they seem
Of earls to be honored; sure the atheling is doughty
Hrothgar, too, is struck with Beowulf’s

Who headed the heroes hitherward coming.”


VII. Hrothgar and Beowulf

Hrothgar answered, helm of the Scyldings:
Hrothgar remembers Beowulf as a youth,
“I remember this man as the merest of striplings.
and also remembers his father.
His father long dead now was Ecgtheow titled,
Him Hrethel the Geatman granted at home his
One only daughter; his battle-brave son
Is come but now, sought a trustworthy friend.
Seafaring sailors asserted it then,
Who valuable gift-gems of the Geatmen carried
As peace-offering thither, that he thirty men’s grapple
Beowulf is reported to have the strength of
10 Has in his hand, the hero-in-battle. 30 men.
The holy Creator usward sent him,
To West-Dane warriors, I ween, for to render
’Gainst Grendel’s grimness gracious assistance:
I shall give to the good one gift-gems for courage.
Hasten to bid them hither to speed them,
To see assembled this circle of kinsmen;
Tell them expressly they’re welcome in sooth to
The men of the Danes.” To the door of the building
Wulfgar went then, this word-message shouted:
“My victorious liegelord bade me to tell you,
Wulfgar invites the strangers in.
The East-Danes’ atheling, that your origin knows he,
And o’er wave-billows wafted ye welcome are hither,
Valiant of spirit. Ye straightway may enter
Clad in corslets, cased in your helmets,
To see King Hrothgar. Here let your battle-boards,
Wood-spears and war-shafts, await your conferring.”
The mighty one rose then, with many a liegeman,
An excellent thane-group; some there did await them,
And as bid of the brave one the battle-gear guarded.
Together they hied them, while the hero did guide them,
’Neath Heorot’s roof; the high-minded went then
Sturdy ’neath helmet till he stood in the building.
Beowulf spake (his burnie did glisten,
His armor seamed over by the art of the craftsman):
“Hail thou, Hrothgar! I am Higelac’s kinsman
Beowulf salutes Hrothgar, and then
And vassal forsooth; many a wonder
proceeds to boast of his youthful
I dared as a stripling. The doings of Grendel,
In far-off fatherland I fully did know of:
Sea-farers tell us, this hall-building standeth,
Excellent edifice, empty and useless
To all the earlmen after evenlight’s glimmer
’Neath heaven’s bright hues hath hidden its glory.
This my earls then urged me, the most excellent of them,
Carles very clever, to come and assist thee,
45 Folk-leader Hrothgar; fully they knew of
The strength of my body. Themselves they beheld me
When I came from the contest, when covered with gore
Foes I escaped from, where five I had bound,
The giant-race wasted, in the waters destroying
The nickers by night, bore numberless sorrows,
The Weders avenged (woes had they suffered)
Enemies ravaged; alone now with Grendel
I shall manage the matter, with the monster of evil,
He intends to fight Grendel unaided.
The giant, decide it. Thee I would therefore
Beg of thy bounty, Bright-Danish chieftain,
Lord of the Scyldings, this single petition:
Not to refuse me, defender of warriors,
Friend-lord of folks, so far have I sought thee,
That I may unaided, my earlmen assisting me,
This brave-mooded war-band, purify Heorot.
I have heard on inquiry, the horrible creature
From veriest rashness recks not for weapons;
I this do scorn then, so be Higelac gracious,
Since the monster uses no weapons,
My liegelord belovèd, lenient of spirit,
65 To bear a blade or a broad-fashioned target,
A shield to the onset; only with hand-grip
The foe I must grapple, fight for my life then,
I, too, shall disdain to use any.
Foeman with foeman; he fain must rely on
The doom of the Lord whom death layeth hold of.
I ween he will wish, if he win in the struggle,
To eat in the war-hall earls of the Geat-folk,
Boldly to swallow them, as of yore he did often
The best of the Hrethmen! Thou needest not trouble
A head-watch to give me; he will have me dripping
And dreary with gore, if death overtake me,
In case of my defeat, thou wilt not have the
Will bear me off bleeding, biting and mouthing me,
trouble of burying me.
The hermit will eat me, heedless of pity,
Marking the moor-fens; no more wilt thou need then
Find me my food. If I fall in the battle, Should I fall, send my armor to my lord,
Send to Higelac the armor that serveth
King Higelac.
To shield my bosom, the best of equipments,
Richest of ring-mails; ’tis the relic of Hrethla,
The work of Wayland. Goes Weird as she must go!”

VIII. Hrothgar and Beowulf–Continued

Hrothgar discoursed, helm of the Scyldings:
Hrothgar responds.
“To defend our folk and to furnish assistance,
Thou soughtest us hither, good friend Beowulf.
The fiercest of feuds thy father engaged in, Reminiscences of Beowulf’s father,
Heatholaf killed he in hand-to-hand conflict
’Mid Wilfingish warriors; then the Wederish people
For fear of a feud were forced to disown him.
Thence flying he fled to the folk of the South-Danes,
The race of the Scyldings, o’er the roll of the waters;
I had lately begun then to govern the Danemen,
The hoard-seat of heroes held in my youth,
Rich in its jewels: dead was Heregar,
My kinsman and elder had earth-joys forsaken,
Healfdene his bairn. He was better than I am!
That feud thereafter for a fee I compounded;
O’er the weltering waters to the Wilfings I sent
Ornaments old; oaths did he swear me.
It pains me in spirit to any to tell it,
Hrothgar recounts to Beowulf the horrors
What grief in Heorot Grendel hath caused me,
of Grendel’s persecutions.
What horror unlooked-for, by hatred unceasing.
Waned is my war-band, wasted my hall-troop;
Weird hath offcast them to the clutches of Grendel.
God can easily hinder the scather
From deeds so direful. Oft drunken with beer
O’er the ale-vessel promised warriors in armor
My thanes have made many boasts,
They would willingly wait on the wassailing-benches
but have not executed them.
A grapple with Grendel, with grimmest of edges.
Then this mead-hall at morning with murder was reeking,
The building was bloody at breaking of daylight,
The bench-deals all flooded, dripping and bloodied,
The folk-hall was gory: I had fewer retainers,
Dear-beloved warriors, whom death had laid hold of.
Sit at the feast now, thy intents unto heroes,
Sit down to the feast, and give us comfort.
Thy victor-fame show, as thy spirit doth urge thee!”
For the men of the Geats then together assembled,
A bench is made ready for Beowulf and his
In the beer-hall blithesome a bench was made ready;
There warlike in spirit they went to be seated,
Proud and exultant. A liegeman did service,
Who a beaker embellished bore with decorum,
40 And gleaming-drink poured. The gleeman sang whilom The gleeman sings.
Hearty in Heorot; there was heroes’ rejoicing,
The heroes all rejoice together.
A numerous war-band of Weders and Danemen.

IX. Unferth Taunts Beowulf

Unferth spoke up, Ecglaf his son,
Unferth, a than of Hrothgar, is jealous
Who sat at the feet of the lord of the Scyldings,
of Beowulf, and undertakes to twit him.
Opened the jousting (the journey of Beowulf,
Sea-farer doughty, gave sorrow to Unferth
And greatest chagrin, too, for granted he never
That any man else on earth should attain to,
Gain under heaven, more glory than he):
“Art thou that Beowulf with Breca did struggle,
On the wide sea-currents at swimming contended,
Did you take part in a swimming-match
10 Where to humor your pride the ocean ye tried, with Breca?
From vainest vaunting adventured your bodies
In care of the waters? And no one was able
Nor lief nor loth one, in the least to dissuade you
Your difficult voyage; then ye ventured a-swimming,
Where your arms outstretching the streams ye did cover,
The mere-ways measured, mixing and stirring them,
Glided the ocean; angry the waves were,
With the weltering of winter. In the water’s possession,
Ye toiled for a seven-night; he at swimming outdid thee,
In strength excelled thee. Then early at morning
On the Heathoremes’ shore the holm-currents tossed him,
Sought he thenceward the home of his fathers,
Beloved of his liegemen, the land of the Brondings,
The peace-castle pleasant, where a people he wielded,
25 Had borough and jewels. The pledge that he made thee
The son of Beanstan hath soothly accomplished.
Breca outdid you entirely.
Then I ween thou wilt find thee less fortunate issue,
Though ever triumphant in onset of battle,
Much more will Grendel outdo you, if you
A grim grappling, if Grendel thou darest
vie with him in prowess.
30 For the space of a night near-by to wait for!”
Beowulf answered, offspring of Ecgtheow:
Beowulf retaliates.
“My good friend Unferth, sure freely and wildly,
Thou fuddled with beer of Breca hast spoken,
O friend Unferth, you are fuddles with beer,
Hast told of his journey! A fact I allege it,
and cannot talk coherently.
That greater strength in the waters I had then,
Ills in the ocean, than any man else had.
We made agreement as the merest of striplings
Promised each other (both of us then were
Younkers in years) that we yet would adventure We simply kept an engagement made in early
Out on the ocean; it all we accomplished.
While swimming the sea-floods, sword-blade unscabbarded
Boldly we brandished, our bodies expected
To shield from the sharks. He sure was unable
To swim on the waters further than I could, He could not excel me, and I
More swift on the waves, nor would I from him go.
would not excel him.
Then we two companions stayed in the ocean
Five nights together, till the currents did part us,
After 5 days the currents separated us.
The weltering waters, weathers the bleakest,
And nethermost night, and the north-wind whistled
Fierce in our faces; fell were the billows.
The mere fishes’ mood was mightily ruffled:
And there against foemen my firm-knotted corslet,
Hand-jointed, hardy, help did afford me;
My battle-sark braided, brilliantly gilded,
Lay on my bosom. To the bottom then dragged me,
A horrible sea-beast attacked me, but I
A hateful fiend-scather, seized me and held me,
slew him.
Grim in his grapple: ’twas granted me, nathless,
To pierce the monster with the point of my weapon,
My obedient blade; battle offcarried
60 The mighty mere-creature by means of my hand-blow.

X. Beowulf Silences Unferth–Glee is High

“So ill-meaning enemies often did cause me
Sorrow the sorest. I served them, in quittance,
With my dear-lovèd sword, as in sooth it was fitting;
My dear sword always served me faithfully.
They missed the pleasure of feasting abundantly
Ill-doers evil, of eating my body,
Of surrounding the banquet deep in the ocean;
But wounded with edges early at morning
They were stretched a-high on the strand of the ocean,
Put to sleep with the sword, that sea-going travelers I put a stop to the outrages of the sea-monsters.
No longer thereafter were hindered from sailing
The foam-dashing currents. Came a light from the east,
God’s beautiful beacon; the billows subsided,
That well I could see the nesses projecting,
The blustering crags. Weird often saveth Forture helps the brave earl.
The undoomed hero if doughty his valor!
But me did it fortune to fell with my weapon
Nine of the nickers. Of night-struggle harder
’Neath dome of the heaven heard I but rarely,
Nor of wight more woful in the waves of the ocean;
20 Yet I ’scaped with my life the grip of the monsters,
Weary from travel. Then the waters bare me
After that escape I drifted to Finland.
To the land of the Finns, the flood with the current,
The weltering waves. Not a word hath been told me
I’ve never heard of your doing any such bold
Of deeds so daring done by thee, Unferth,
And of sword-terror none; never hath Breca
At the play of the battle, nor either of you two,
Feat so fearless performèd with weapons
Glinting and gleaming . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . I utter no boasting;
Though with cold-blooded cruelty thou killedst thy brothers,
You are a slayer of brothers, and will suffer
Thy nearest of kin; thou needs must in hell get
damnation, wise as you may be.
Direful damnation, though doughty thy wisdom.
I tell thee in earnest, offspring of Ecglaf,
Never had Grendel such numberless horrors,
The direful demon, done to thy liegelord,
Harrying in Heorot, if thy heart were as sturdy,
Thy mood as ferocious as thou dost describe them.
Had your acts been as brave as your words,
He hath found out fully that the fierce-burning hatred,
Grendel had not ravaged your land so long.
The edge-battle eager, of all of your kindred,
Of the Victory-Scyldings, need little dismay him:
Oaths he exacteth, not any he spares
Of the folk of the Danemen, but fighteth with pleasure,
The monster is not afraid of the Danes,
Killeth and feasteth, no contest expecteth
From Spear-Danish people. But the prowess and valor but he will soon learn to dread the Geats.
Of the earls of the Geatmen early shall venture
To give him a grapple. He shall go who is able
Bravely to banquet, when the bright-light of morning
Which the second day bringeth, the sun in its ether-robes,
On the second day, any warrior may go un-
O’er children of men shines from the southward!”
molested to the mead-banquet.
50 Then the gray-haired, war-famed giver of treasure
Was blithesome and joyous, the Bright-Danish ruler
Hrothgar’s spirits are revived.
Expected assistance; the people’s protector
Heard from Beowulf his bold resolution.
The old king trusts Beowulf.
There was laughter of heroes; loud was the clatter,
55 The words were winsome. Wealhtheow advanced then, Queen Wealhtheow plays hostess.
Consort of Hrothgar, of courtesy mindful,
Gold-decked saluted the men in the building,
And the freeborn woman the beaker presented
She offers the cup to her husband first.
To the lord of the kingdom, first of the East-Danes,
Bade him be blithesome when beer was a-flowing,
Lief to his liegemen; he lustily tasted
Of banquet and beaker, battle-famed ruler.
The Helmingish lady then graciously circled
’Mid all the liegemen lesser and greater:
Treasure-cups tendered, till time was afforded
She gives presents to the heroes.
That the decorous-mooded, diademed folk-queen
Might bear to Beowulf the bumper o’errunning;
She then offers the cup to Beowulf.
She greeted the Geat-prince, God she did thank,
Most wise in her words, that her wish was accomplished,
That in any of earlmen she ever should look for
Solace in sorrow. He accepted the beaker,
Battle-bold warrior, at Wealhtheow’s giving,
Then equipped for combat quoth he in measures,
Beowulf states to the queen the object of
Beowulf spake, offspring of Ecgtheow:
his visit.
75 “I purposed in spirit when I mounted the ocean,
When I boarded my boat with a band of my liegemen,
I determined to do or die.
I would work to the fullest the will of your people
Or in foe’s-clutches fastened fall in the battle.
Deeds I shall do of daring and prowess,
Or the last of my life-days live in this mead-hall.”
These words to the lady were welcome and pleasing,
The boast of the Geatman; with gold trappings broidered
Went the freeborn folk-queen her fond-lord to sit by.
Then again as of yore was heard in the building Glee is high.
Courtly discussion, conquerors’ shouting,
Heroes were happy, till Healfdene’s son would
Go to his slumber to seek for refreshing;
For the horrid hell-monster in the hall-building knew he
A fight was determined,2 since the light of the sun they
No longer could see, and lowering darkness
O’er all had descended, and dark under heaven
Shadowy shapes came shying around them.
The liegemen all rose then. One saluted the other,
Hrothgar retires, leaving Beowulf in charge of the hall.
Hrothgar Beowulf, in rhythmical measures,
Wishing him well, and, the wassail-hall giving
To his care and keeping, quoth he departing:
“Not to any one else have I ever entrusted,
But thee and thee only, the hall of the Danemen,
Since high I could heave my hand and my buckler.
Take thou in charge now the noblest of houses;
Be mindful of honor, exhibiting prowess,
Watch ’gainst the foeman! Thou shalt want no enjoyments,
Survive thou safely adventure so glorious!”

XI. All Sleep Save One

Then Hrothgar departed, his earl-throng attending him,
Hrothgar retires.
Folk-lord of Scyldings, forth from the building;
The war-chieftain wished then Wealhtheow to look for,
The queen for a bedmate. To keep away Grendel
The Glory of Kings had given a hall-watch,
God has provided a watch for the hall.
As men heard recounted: for the king of the Danemen
He did special service, gave the giant a watcher:
And the prince of the Geatmen implicitly trusted
His warlike strength and the Wielder’s protection. Beowulf is selfconfident; he prepares for rest.
His armor of iron off him he did then,
His helmet from his head, to his henchman committed
His chased-handled chain-sword, choicest of weapons,
And bade him bide with his battle-equipments.
The good one then uttered words of defiance,
15 Beowulf Geatman, ere his bed he upmounted:
“I hold me no meaner in matters of prowess,
In warlike achievements, than Grendel does himself;
Beowulf boasts of his ability to cope with Grendel.
Hence I seek not with sword-edge to sooth him to slumber,
Of life to bereave him, though well I am able.
No battle-skill has he, that blows he should strike me,
We will fight with nature’s weapons only.
To shatter my shield, though sure he is mighty
In strife and destruction; but struggling by night we
Shall do without edges, dare he to look for
Weaponless warfare, and wise-mooded Father
25 The glory apportion, God ever-holy,
On which hand soever to him seemeth proper.”
Then the brave-mooded hero bent to his slumber,
God may decide who shall conquer.
The pillow received the cheek of the noble;
And many a martial mere-thane attending
30 Sank to his slumber. Seemed it unlikely The Geatish warriors lie down.
That ever thereafter any should hope to
Be happy at home, hero-friends visit
They thought they would never see their homes.
Or the lordly troop-castle where he lived from his childhood;
They had heard how slaughter had snatched from the wine-hall,
35 Had recently ravished, of the race of the Scyldings
Too many by far. But the Lord to them granted
But God raised up a deliverer.
The weaving of war-speed, to Wederish heroes
Aid and comfort, that every opponent
By one man’s war-might they worsted and vanquished,
By the might of himself; the truth is established
That God Almighty hath governed for ages
Kindreds and nations. A night very lurid
The trav’ler-at-twilight came tramping and striding.
The warriors were sleeping who should watch the horned-building,
Grendel comes to Heorot.
One only excepted. ’Mid earthmen ’twas ’stablished,
Th’ implacable foeman was powerless to hurl them
Only one warrior is awake.
To the land of shadows, if the Lord were unwilling;
But serving as warder, in terror to foemen,
He angrily bided the issue of battle.

XII. Grendal and Beowulf

’Neath the cloudy cliffs came from the moor then
Grendel comes from the fens.
Grendel going, God’s anger bare he.
The monster intended some one of earthmen
In the hall-building grand to entrap and make way with:
He went under welkin where well he knew of
He goes toward the joyous building.
The wine-joyous building, brilliant with plating,
Gold-hall of earthmen. Not the earliest occasion
He the home and manor of Hrothgar had sought:
Ne’er found he in life-days later nor earlier
Hardier hero, hall-thanes more sturdy!
Then came to the building the warrior marching,
Bereft of his joyance. The door quickly opened
His fingers tear the door open.
On fire-hinges fastened, when his fingers had touched it;
The fell one had flung then—his fury so bitter—
Open the entrance. Early thereafter
The foeman trod the shining hall-pavement,
Strode he angrily; from the eyes of him glimmered
He strides furiously into the hall.
A lustre unlovely likest to fire.
He beheld in the hall the heroes in numbers,
20 A circle of kinsmen sleeping together,
A throng of thanemen: then his thoughts were exultant,
He exults over his supposed prey.
He minded to sunder from each of the thanemen
The life from his body, horrible demon,
Ere morning came, since fate had allowed him
The prospect of plenty. Providence willed not
Fate has decreed that he shall devour no
To permit him any more of men under heaven
more heroes.
To eat in the night-time. Higelac’s kinsman
Great sorrow endured how the dire-mooded creature
In unlooked-for assaults were likely to bear him.
30 No thought had the monster of deferring the matter,
But on earliest occasion he quickly laid hold of
Grendel immediately seizes a sleeping
A soldier asleep, suddenly tore him,
warrior, and devours him.
Bit his bone-prison, the blood drank in currents,
Swallowed in mouthfuls: he soon had the dead man’s
Feet and hands, too, eaten entirely.
Nearer he strode then, the stout-hearted warrior
Snatched as he slumbered, seizing with hand-grip,
Beowulf and Grendel grapple.
Forward the foeman foined with his hand;
Caught he quickly the cunning deviser,
On his elbow he rested. This early discovered
The master of malice, that in middle-earth’s regions,
’Neath the whole of the heavens, no hand-grapple greater
In any man else had he ever encountered:
The monster is amazed at Beowulf’s
Fearful in spirit, faint-mooded waxed he,
45 Not off could betake him; death he was pondering,
Would fly to his covert, seek the devils’ assembly:
He is anxious to flee.
His calling no more was the same he had followed
Long in his lifetime. The liege-kinsman worthy
Of Higelac minded his speech of the evening, Beowulf recalls his boast of the evening,
Stood he up straight and stoutly did seize him.
and determines to fulfill it.
His fingers crackled; the giant was outward,
The earl stepped farther. The famous one minded
To flee away farther, if he found an occasion,
And off and away, avoiding delay,
To fly to the fen-moors; he fully was ware of
The strength of his grapple in the grip of the foeman.
’Twas an ill-taken journey that the injury-bringing,
Twas a luckless day for Grendel.
Harrying harmer to Heorot wandered:
The palace re-echoed; to all of the Danemen, The hall groans.
Dwellers in castles, to each of the bold ones,
Earlmen, was terror. Angry they both were,
Archwarders raging. Rattled the building;
’Twas a marvellous wonder that the wine-hall withstood then
The bold-in-battle, bent not to earthward,
Excellent earth-hall; but within and without it
Was fastened so firmly in fetters of iron,
By the art of the armorer. Off from the sill there
Bent mead-benches many, as men have informed me,
Adorned with gold-work, where the grim ones did struggle.
The Scylding wise men weened ne’er before
That by might and main-strength a man under heaven
Might break it in pieces, bone-decked, resplendent,
Crush it by cunning, unless clutch of the fire
In smoke should consume it. The sound mounted upward
Novel enough; on the North Danes fastened
Grendel’s cries terrify the Danes.
A terror of anguish, on all of the men there
Who heard from the wall the weeping and plaining,
The song of defeat from the foeman of heaven,
Heard him hymns of horror howl, and his sorrow
Hell-bound bewailing. He held him too firmly
Who was strongest of main-strength of men of that era.

XIII. Grendel is Vanquished

For no cause whatever would the earlmen’s defender
Beowulf has no idea of letting Grendel live.
Leave in life-joys the loathsome newcomer,
He deemed his existence utterly useless
To men under heaven. Many a noble
Of Beowulf brandished his battle-sword old,
Would guard the life of his lord and protector,
The far-famous chieftain, if able to do so;
While waging the warfare, this wist they but little,
Brave battle-thanes, while his body intending
To slit into slivers, and seeking his spirit:
No weapon would harm Grendel; he bore
That the relentless foeman nor finest of weapons
a charmed life.
Of all on the earth, nor any of war-bills
Was willing to injure; but weapons of victory
Swords and suchlike he had sworn to dispense with.
His death at that time must prove to be wretched,
And the far-away spirit widely should journey
Into enemies’ power. This plainly he saw then
Who with mirth of mood malice no little
Had wrought in the past on the race of the earthmen
(To God he was hostile), that his body would fail him,
But Higelac’s hardy henchman and kinsman
Held him by the hand; hateful to other
Was each one if living. A body-wound suffered
Grendel is sorely wounded.
The direful demon, damage incurable
Was seen on his shoulder, his sinews were shivered,
His body burst.
His body did burst. To Beowulf was given
Glory in battle; Grendel from thenceward
Must flee and hide him in the fen-cliffs and marshes,
Sick unto death, his dwelling must look for
30 Unwinsome and woful; he wist the more fully
The end of his earthly existence was nearing,
The monster flees to hide in the moors.
His life-days’ limits. At last for the Danemen,
When the slaughter was over, their wish was accomplished.
The comer-from-far-land had cleansed then of evil,
Wise and valiant, the war-hall of Hrothgar,
Saved it from violence. He joyed in the night-work,
In repute for prowess; the prince of the Geatmen
For the East-Danish people his boast had accomplished,
Bettered their burdensome bale-sorrows fully,
The craft-begot evil they erstwhile had suffered
And were forced to endure from crushing oppression,
Their manifold misery. ’Twas a manifest token,
When the hero-in-battle the hand suspended,
Beowulf suspends Grendel’s hand and arm
The arm and the shoulder (there was all of the claw
in Heorot.
45 Of Grendel together) ’neath great-stretching hall-roof.

XIV: Rejoicing of the Danes

In the mist of the morning many a warrior
At early dawn, warriors from far and near come
Stood round the gift-hall, as the story is told me:
together to hear of the night’s adventures.
Folk-princes fared then from far and from near
Through long-stretching journeys to look at the wonder,
5 The footprints of the foeman. Few of the warriors
Who gazed on the foot-tracks of the inglorious creature
His parting from life pained very deeply,
Few warriors lament Grendel’s destruction.
How, weary in spirit, off from those regions
In combats conquered he carried his traces,
10 Fated and flying, to the flood of the nickers.
There in bloody billows bubbled the currents,
Grendel’s blood dyes the waters.
The angry eddy was everywhere mingled
And seething with gore, welling with sword-blood;
He death-doomed had hid him, when reaved of his joyance
He laid down his life in the lair he had fled to,
His heathenish spirit, where hell did receive him.
Thence the friends from of old backward turned them,
And many a younker from merry adventure,
Striding their stallions, stout from the seaward,
20 Heroes on horses. There were heard very often
Beowulf’s praises; many often asserted
Beowulf is the hero of the hour.
That neither south nor north, in the circuit of waters,
O’er outstretching earth-plain, none other was better
He is regarded as a probably successor to Hrothgar.
’Mid bearers of war-shields, more worthy to govern,
’Neath the arch of the ether. Not any, however,
’Gainst the friend-lord muttered, mocking-words uttered
Of Hrothgar the gracious (a good king he).
Oft the famed ones permitted their fallow-skinned horses
To run in rivalry, racing and chasing,
Where the fieldways appeared to them fair and inviting,
Known for their excellence; oft a thane of the folk-lord,
A man of celebrity, mindful of rhythms,
The gleeman sings of the deeds of heroes.
Who ancient traditions treasured in memory,
New word-groups found properly bound:
35 The bard after ’gan then Beowulf’s venture
Wisely to tell of, and words that were clever
To utter skilfully, earnestly speaking,
He sings, in alliteration, of Beowulf’s prowess.
Everything told he that he heard as to Sigmund’s
Mighty achievements, many things hidden, Also of Sigemund, who has slain a great
The strife of the Wælsing, the wide-going ventures
The children of men knew of but little,
The feud and the fury, but Fitela with him,
When suchlike matters he minded to speak of,
Uncle to nephew, as in every contention
Each to other was ever devoted:
A numerous host of the race of the scathers
They had slain with the sword-edge. To Sigmund accrued then
No little of glory, when his life-days were over,
Since he sturdy in struggle had destroyed the great dragon,
The hoard-treasure’s keeper; ’neath the hoar-grayish stone he,
The son of the atheling, unaided adventured
The perilous project; not present was Fitela,
Yet the fortune befell him of forcing his weapon
Through the marvellous dragon, that it stood in the wall,
Well-honored weapon; the worm was slaughtered.
The great one had gained then by his glorious achievement
To reap from the ring-hoard richest enjoyment,
As best it did please him: his vessel he loaded,
Shining ornaments on the ship’s bosom carried,
60 Kinsman of Wæls: the drake in heat melted.
He was farthest famed of fugitive pilgrims,
Mid wide-scattered world-folk, for works of great prowess,
Sigemund was widely famed.
War-troopers’ shelter: hence waxed he in honor.
Afterward Heremod’s hero-strength failed him, Heremod, an unfortunate Danish king, is
His vigor and valor. ’Mid venomous haters
introduced by way of contrast.
To the hands of foemen he was foully delivered,
Offdriven early. Agony-billows
Oppressed him too long, to his people he became then,
Unliked Sigemund & Beowulf, Heremod was
To all the athelings, an ever-great burden;
a burden to his people.
And the daring one’s journey in days of yore
Many wise men were wont to deplore,
Such as hoped he would bring them help in their sorrow,
That the son of their ruler should rise into power,
Holding the headship held by his fathers,
Should govern the people, the gold-hoard and borough,
The kingdom of heroes, the realm of the Scyldings.
He to all men became then far more beloved,
Higelac’s kinsman, to kindreds and races,
Beowulf is an honor to his race.
To his friends much dearer; him malice assaulted.—
Oft running and racing on roadsters they measured
The story is resumed.
The dun-colored highways. Then the light of the morning
Was hurried and hastened. Went henchmen in numbers
To the beautiful building, bold ones in spirit,
To look at the wonder; the liegelord himself then
From his wife-bower wending, warden of treasures,
Glorious trod with troopers unnumbered,
Famed for his virtues, and with him the queen-wife
Measured the mead-ways, with maidens attending.

XV. Hrothgar’s Gratitude

Hrothgar discoursed (to the hall-building went he,
He stood by the pillar, saw the steep-rising hall-roof
Gleaming with gold-gems, and Grendel his hand there):
“For the sight we behold now, thanks to the Wielder
Early be offered! Much evil I bided,
Snaring from Grendel: God can e’er ’complish
Wonder on wonder, Wielder of Glory!
But lately I reckoned ne’er under heaven
Comfort to gain me for any of sorrows,
I had given up all hope, when this brave
While the handsomest of houses horrid with bloodstain
liegeman came to our aid.
Gory uptowered; grief had offfrightened
Each of the wise ones who weened not that ever
The folk-troop’s defences ’gainst foes they should strengthen,
’Gainst sprites and monsters. Through the might of the Wielder
A doughty retainer hath a deed now accomplished
Which erstwhile we all with our excellent wisdom
Failed to perform. May affirm very truly
What woman soever in all of the nations
If his mother yet lives, well may she thank
Gave birth to the child, if yet she surviveth,
God for this son.
That the long-ruling Lord was lavish to herward
In the birth of the bairn. Now, Beowulf dear,
Most excellent hero, I’ll love thee in spirit
Hereafter, Beowulf, thou shall be my son.
As bairn of my body; bear well henceforward
The relationship new. No lack shall befall thee
Of earth-joys any I ever can give thee.
Full often for lesser service I’ve given
Hero less hardy hoard-treasure precious,
To a weaker in war-strife. By works of distinction
Thou hast gained for thyself now that thy glory shall flourish
Thou has won immortal distinction.
Forever and ever. The All-Ruler quite thee
With good from His hand as He hitherto did thee!”
Beowulf answered, Ecgtheow’s offspring:
Beowulf replies: I was most happy to render thee
“That labor of glory most gladly achieved we,
in this service.
The combat accomplished, unquailing we ventured
The enemy’s grapple; I would grant it much rather
Thou wert able to look at the creature in person,
Faint unto falling, the foe in his trappings!
On murder-bed quickly I minded to bind him,
With firm-holding fetters, that forced by my grapple
Low he should lie in life-and-death struggle
’Less his body escape; I was wholly unable,
Since God did not will it, to keep him from going,
Not held him that firmly, hated opposer;
I could not keep th emonster from escaping, as
Too swift was the foeman. Yet safety regarding
God did not will that I should.
He suffered his hand behind him to linger,
His arm and shoulder, to act as watcher;
No shadow of solace the woe-begone creature
He left his hand and arm behind.
Found him there nathless: the hated destroyer
Liveth no longer, lashed for his evils,
But sorrow hath seized him, in snare-meshes hath him
Close in its clutches, keepeth him writhing
In baleful bonds: there banished for evil
The man shall wait for the mighty tribunal,
How the God of glory shall give him his earnings.”
55 Then the soldier kept silent, son of old Ecglaf,
From boasting and bragging of battle-achievements,
Unferth has nothing more to say, for Beowulf’s
Since the princes beheld there the hand that depended
actions speak louder than words.
’Neath the lofty hall-timbers by the might of the nobleman,
Each one before him, the enemy’s fingers;
Each finger-nail strong steel most resembled,
The heathen one’s hand-spur, the hero-in-battle’s
Claw most uncanny; quoth they agreeing,
That not any excellent edges of brave ones
Was willing to touch him, the terrible creature’s
No sword will harm the monster.
65 Battle-hand bloody to bear away from him.

XVI. Hrothgar Lavishes Gifts upon his Deliverer

Then straight was ordered that Heorot inside
Heorot is adorned with hands.
With hands be embellished: a host of them gathered,
Of men and women, who the wassailing-building
The guest-hall begeared. Gold-flashing sparkled
Webs on the walls then, of wonders a many
To each of the heroes that look on such objects.
The beautiful building was broken to pieces
The hall is defaced.
Which all within with irons was fastened,
Its hinges torn off: only the roof was
Whole and uninjured when the horrible creature
Outlawed for evil off had betaken him,
Hopeless of living. ’Tis hard to avoid it
(Whoever will do it!); but he doubtless must come to
[vague passage of five verses]
The place awaiting, as Wyrd hath appointed,
Soul-bearers, earth-dwellers, earls under heaven,
Where bound on its bed his body shall slumber
Hrothgar goes to the banquet.
When feasting is finished. Full was the time then
That the son of Healfdene went to the building;
The excellent atheling would eat of the banquet.
Ne’er heard I that people with hero-band larger
Bare them better tow’rds their bracelet-bestower.
The laden-with-glory stooped to the bench then
(Their kinsmen-companions in plenty were joyful,
Many a cupful quaffing complaisantly),
25 Doughty of spirit in the high-tow’ring palace,
Hrothgar and Hrothulf. Heorot then inside
Hrothgar’s nephew, Hrothulf, is present.
Was filled with friendly ones; falsehood and treachery
The Folk-Scyldings now nowise did practise.
Hrothgar lavishes gifts upon Beowulf.
Then the offspring of Healfdene offered to Beowulf
A golden standard, as reward for the victory,
A banner embossed, burnie and helmet;
Many men saw then a song-famous weapon
Borne ’fore the hero. Beowulf drank of
The cup in the building; that treasure-bestowing
35 He needed not blush for in battle-men’s presence.
Ne’er heard I that many men on the ale-bench
In friendlier fashion to their fellows presented
Four bright jewels with gold-work embellished.
Four handsomer gifts were never presented.
’Round the roof of the helmet a head-guarder outside
Braided with wires, with bosses was furnished,
That swords-for-the-battle fight-hardened might fail
Boldly to harm him, when the hero proceeded
Forth against foemen. The defender of earls then
Commanded that eight steeds with bridles
Hrothgar commands that 8 finely caparisoned
Gold-plated, gleaming, be guided to hallward,
steeds be brought to Beowulf.
Inside the building; on one of them stood then
An art-broidered saddle embellished with jewels;
’Twas the sovereign’s seat, when the son of King Healfdene
Was pleased to take part in the play of the edges;
The famous one’s valor ne’er failed at the front when
Slain ones were bowing. And to Beowulf granted
The prince of the Ingwins, power over both,
O’er war-steeds and weapons; bade him well to enjoy them.
In so manly a manner the mighty-famed chieftain,
Hoard-ward of heroes, with horses and jewels
War-storms requited, that none e’er condemneth
Who willeth to tell truth with full justice.

XVII: Banquet (Continued) — The Scop’s Song of Finn and Hnaef

And the atheling of earlmen to each of the heroes
Each of Beowulf’s companions receives a costly
Who the ways of the waters went with Beowulf,
A costly gift-token gave on the mead-bench,
Offered an heirloom, and ordered that that man
With gold should be paid for, whom Grendel had erstwhile
Wickedly slaughtered, as he more of them had done
The warrior killed by Grendel is to be paid for
Had far-seeing God and the mood of the hero
in gold.
The fate not averted: the Father then governed
All of the earth-dwellers, as He ever is doing;
Hence insight for all men is everywhere fittest,
Forethought of spirit! much he shall suffer
Of lief and of loathsome who long in this present
Useth the world in this woful existence.
There was music and merriment mingling together
Touching Healfdene’s leader; the joy-wood was fingered,
Hrothgar’s scop recalls event sin the reign
Measures recited, when the singer of Hrothgar
of his lord’s father.
On mead-bench should mention the merry hall-joyance
Of the kinsmen of Finn, when onset surprised them:
“The Half-Danish hero, Hnæf of the Scyldings, Hnaef, the Danish general, is treacherously attacked
On the field of the Frisians was fated to perish.
while staying Finn’s castle.
Sure Hildeburg needed not mention approving
The faith of the Jutemen: though blameless entirely,
When shields were shivered she was shorn of her darlings,
Queen Hildeburg is not only wife of Finn but a
Of bairns and brothers: they bent to their fate
kinswoman of the murdered Hnaef.
With war-spear wounded; woe was that woman.
Not causeless lamented the daughter of Hoce
The decree of the Wielder when morning-light came and
She was able ’neath heaven to behold the destruction
Of brothers and bairns, where the brightest of earth-joys
She had hitherto had: all the henchmen of Finn
Finn’s force is almost exterminated.
War had offtaken, save a handful remaining,
That he nowise was able to offer resistance
To the onset of Hengest in the parley of battle,
Nor the wretched remnant to rescue in war from
Hengest succeeds Hnaef as Danish general.
35 The earl of the atheling; but they offered conditions,
Another great building to fully make ready,
Compact between the Frisians and the Danes.
A hall and a high-seat, that half they might rule with
The sons of the Jutemen, and that Folcwalda’s son would
Day after day the Danemen honor
When gifts were giving, and grant of his ring-store
To Hengest’s earl-troop ever so freely,
Of his gold-plated jewels, as he encouraged the Frisians
On the bench of the beer-hall. On both sides they swore then
Equality of gifts agreed on.
A fast-binding compact; Finn unto Hengest
With no thought of revoking vowed then most solemnly
The woe-begone remnant well to take charge of,
His Witan advising; the agreement should no one
By words or works weaken and shatter,
By artifice ever injure its value,
Though reaved of their ruler their ring-giver’s slayer
They followed as vassals, Fate so requiring:
Then if one of the Frisians the quarrel should speak of
No one shall refer to old grudges.
In tones that were taunting, terrible edges
Should cut in requital. Accomplished the oath was,
55 And treasure of gold from the hoard was uplifted.
The best of the Scylding braves was then fully
Prepared for the pile; at the pyre was seen clearly
Danish warriors are burned on a funeral pyre.
The blood-gory burnie, the boar with his gilding,
The iron-hard swine, athelings many
Fatally wounded; no few had been slaughtered.
Hildeburg bade then, at the burning of Hnæf,
The bairn of her bosom to bear to the fire,
Queen Hildeburg has her son burnt along with
That his body be burned and borne to the pyre.
The woe-stricken woman wept on his shoulder,
In measures lamented; upmounted the hero.
The greatest of dead-fires curled to the welkin,
On the hill’s-front crackled; heads were a-melting,
Wound-doors bursting, while the blood was a-coursing
From body-bite fierce. The fire devoured them,
Greediest of spirits, whom war had offcarried
From both of the peoples; their bravest were fallen.

XVIII. The Finn Episode (Continued)–The Banquet Continues

“Then the warriors departed to go to their dwellings,
The survivors go to Friesland, the home of Finn.
Reaved of their friends, Friesland to visit,
Their homes and high-city. Hengest continued
Biding with Finn the blood-tainted winter, Hengest remains there all winter, unable to
Wholly unsundered; of fatherland thought he
get away.
Though unable to drive the ring-stemmèd vessel
O’er the ways of the waters; the wave-deeps were tossing,
Fought with the wind; winter in ice-bonds
Closed up the currents, till there came to the dwelling
A year in its course, as yet it revolveth,
If season propitious one alway regardeth,
World-cheering weathers. Then winter was gone,
Earth’s bosom was lovely; the exile would get him,
He devises schemes of vengeance.
The guest from the palace; on grewsomest vengeance
He brooded more eager than on oversea journeys,
Whe’r onset-of-anger he were able to ’complish,
The bairns of the Jutemen therein to remember.
Nowise refused he the duties of liegeman
When Hun of the Frisians the battle-sword Láfing,
Fairest of falchions, friendly did give him:
Its edges were famous in folk-talk of Jutland.
And savage sword-fury seized in its clutches
Bold-mooded Finn where he bode in his palace,
When the grewsome grapple Guthlaf and Oslaf Guthlaf and Oslaf revenge Hnaef’s slaughter.
Had mournfully mentioned, the mere-journey over,
For sorrows half-blamed him; the flickering spirit
Could not bide in his bosom. Then the building was covered
With corpses of foemen, and Finn too was slaughtered,
Finn is slain.
The king with his comrades, and the queen made a prisoner.
The troops of the Scyldings bore to their vessels
The jewels of Finn, and his queen are carried away by
All that the land-king had in his palace,
the Danes.
Such trinkets and treasures they took as, on searching,
At Finn’s they could find. They ferried to Daneland
The excellent woman on oversea journey,
Led her to their land-folk.” The lay was concluded,
The son-poem concluded; main story resumes.
The gleeman’s recital. Shouts again rose then,
Bench-glee resounded, bearers then offered
Wine from wonder-vats. Wealhtheo advanced then
Skiners carry round the beaker.
Going ’neath gold-crown, where the good ones were seated
Uncle and nephew; their peace was yet mutual,
Queen Wealhtheow greets Hrothgar, as he sits
True each to the other. And Unferth the spokesman
beside Hrothulf, his nephew.
Sat at the feet of the lord of the Scyldings:
Each trusted his spirit that his mood was courageous,
Though at fight he had failed in faith to his kinsmen.
Said the queen of the Scyldings: “My lord and protector,
Treasure-bestower, take thou this beaker;
Joyance attend thee, gold-friend of heroes,
And greet thou the Geatmen with gracious responses!
Be generous to the Geats.
So ought one to do. Be kind to the Geatmen,
In gifts not niggardly; anear and afar now
Peace thou enjoyest. Report hath informed me
Thou’lt have for a bairn the battle-brave hero.
Now is Heorot cleansèd, ring-palace gleaming;
Give while thou mayest many rewards, Have as much joy as possible in thy hall, once
And bequeath to thy kinsmen kingdom and people,
more purified.
On wending thy way to the Wielder’s splendor.
I know good Hrothulf, that the noble young troopers
He’ll care for and honor, lord of the Scyldings,
I know that Hrothulf will prove faithful if he survive
If earth-joys thou endest earlier than he doth;
I reckon that recompense he’ll render with kindness
Our offspring and issue, if that all he remember,
What favors of yore, when he yet was an infant,
We awarded to him for his worship and pleasure.”
Then she turned by the bench where her sons were carousing,
65 Hrethric and Hrothmund, and the heroes’ offspring,
The war-youth together; there the good one was sitting
Beowulf is sitting by the two royal sons.
’Twixt the brothers twain, Beowulf Geatman.

XIX. Bewoulf receives further Honor

A beaker was borne him, and bidding to quaff it
More gifts are offered Beowulf.
Graciously given, and gold that was twisted
Pleasantly proffered, a pair of arm-jewels,
Rings and corslet, of collars the greatest
I’ve heard of ’neath heaven. Of heroes not any
More splendid from jewels have I heard ’neath the welkin,
Since Hama off bore the Brosingmen’s necklace,
A famous necklace is referred to, in comparison
The bracteates and jewels, from the bright-shining city,
with the gems presented to Beowulf.
Eormenric’s cunning craftiness fled from,
Chose gain everlasting. Geatish Higelac,
Grandson of Swerting, last had this jewel
When tramping ’neath banner the treasure he guarded,
The field-spoil defended; Fate offcarried him
When for deeds of daring he endured tribulation,
Hate from the Frisians; the ornaments bare he
O’er the cup of the currents, costly gem-treasures,
Mighty folk-leader, he fell ’neath his target;
The corpse of the king then came into charge of
The race of the Frankmen, the mail-shirt and collar:
Warmen less noble plundered the fallen,
When the fight was finished; the folk of the Geatmen
The field of the dead held in possession.
The choicest of mead-halls with cheering resounded.
Wealhtheo discoursed, the war-troop addressed she:
“This collar enjoy thou, Beowulf worthy,
Queen Wealhtheow magnifies Beowulf’s achievements.
Young man, in safety, and use thou this armor,
Gems of the people, and prosper thou fully,
Show thyself sturdy and be to these liegemen
Mild with instruction! I’ll mind thy requital.
Thou hast brought it to pass that far and near
Forever and ever earthmen shall honor thee,
Even so widely as ocean surroundeth
The blustering bluffs. Be, while thou livest,
A wealth-blessèd atheling. I wish thee most truly May gifts never fail thee.
Jewels and treasure. Be kind to my son, thou
Living in joyance! Here each of the nobles
Is true unto other, gentle in spirit,
Loyal to leader. The liegemen are peaceful,
The war-troops ready: well-drunken heroes,
Do as I bid ye.” Then she went to the settle.
There was choicest of banquets, wine drank the heroes:
Weird they knew not, destiny cruel,
They little know of the sorrow in store for them.
As to many an earlman early it happened,
When evening had come and Hrothgar had parted
Off to his manor, the mighty to slumber.
Warriors unnumbered warded the building
As erst they did often: the ale-settle bared they,
’Twas covered all over with beds and pillows.
Doomed unto death, down to his slumber A doomed thane is there with them.
Bowed then a beer-thane. Their battle-shields placed they,
Bright-shining targets, up by their heads then;
O’er the atheling on ale-bench ’twas easy to see there
Battle-high helmet, burnie of ring-mail,
And mighty war-spear. ’Twas the wont of that people They were always ready for battle.
To constantly keep them equipped for the battle,
At home or marching—in either condition—
At seasons just such as necessity ordered
As best for their ruler; that people was worthy.

XX. The Mother of Grendel

They sank then to slumber. With sorrow one paid for
His evening repose, as often betid them
While Grendel was holding the gold-bedecked palace,
Ill-deeds performing, till his end overtook him,
5 Death for his sins. ’Twas seen very clearly,
Known unto earth-folk, that still an avenger
Grendel’s mother is known to be thirsting for revenge.
Outlived the loathed one, long since the sorrow
Caused by the struggle; the mother of Grendel,
Devil-shaped woman, her woe ever minded,
10 Who was held to inhabit the horrible waters,
The cold-flowing currents, after Cain had become a
[Grendel’s progenitor, Cain, is again referred to.]
Slayer-with-edges to his one only brother,
The son of his sire; he set out then banished,
Marked as a murderer, man-joys avoiding,
15 Lived in the desert. Thence demons unnumbered
Fate-sent awoke; one of them Grendel,
The poet again magnifies Beowulf’s valor.
Sword-cursèd, hateful, who at Heorot met with
A man that was watching, waiting the struggle,
Where a horrid one held him with hand-grapple sturdy;
Nathless he minded the might of his body,
The glorious gift God had allowed him,
And folk-ruling Father’s favor relied on,
His help and His comfort: so he conquered the foeman,
The hell-spirit humbled: he unhappy departed then,
Reaved of his joyance, journeying to death-haunts,
Foeman of man. His mother moreover
Grendel’s mother comes to avenge her son.
Eager and gloomy was anxious to go on
Her mournful mission, mindful of vengeance
For the death of her son. She came then to Heorot
Where the Armor-Dane earlmen all through the building
Were lying in slumber. Soon there became then
Return to the nobles, when the mother of Grendel
Entered the folk-hall; the fear was less grievous
By even so much as the vigor of maidens,
War-strength of women, by warrior is reckoned,
When well-carved weapon, worked with the hammer,
Blade very bloody, brave with its edges,
Strikes down the boar-sign that stands on the helmet.
Then the hard-edgèd weapon was heaved in the building,
The brand o’er the benches, broad-lindens many
Hand-fast were lifted; for helmet he recked not,
For armor-net broad, whom terror laid hold of.
She went then hastily, outward would get her
Her life for to save, when some one did spy her;
Soon she had grappled one of the athelings
She seizes a favorite liegemen of Hrothgar’s.
Fast and firmly, when fenward she hied her;
That one to Hrothgar was liefest of heroes
In rank of retainer where waters encircle,
A mighty shield-warrior, whom she murdered at slumber,
50 A broadly-famed battle-knight. Beowulf was absent,
But another apartment was erstwhile devoted
To the glory-decked Geatman when gold was distributed.
Beowulf was asleep in another part of the palace.
There was hubbub in Heorot. The hand that was famous
She grasped in its gore; grief was renewed then
In homes and houses: ’twas no happy arrangement
In both of the quarters to barter and purchase
With lives of their friends. Then the well-agèd ruler,
The gray-headed war-thane, was woful in spirit,
When his long-trusted liegeman lifeless he knew of,
His dearest one gone. Quick from a room was
Beowulf is summoned.
Beowulf brought, brave and triumphant.
As day was dawning in the dusk of the morning,
Went then that earlman, champion noble,
He comes at Hrothgar’s summons.
Came with comrades, where the clever one bided
Whether God all gracious would grant him a respite
After the woe he had suffered. The war-worthy hero
With a troop of retainers trod then the pavement
(The hall-building groaned), till he greeted the wise one,
The earl of the Ingwins; asked if the night had Beowulf inquires how Hrothgar had enjoyed
70 Fully refreshed him, as fain he would have it. his night’s rest.


XXI. Hrothgar’s Account of the Monsters

Hrothgar rejoined, helm of the Scyldings: Hrothgar laments the death of Aeschere, his
“Ask not of joyance! Grief is renewed to shoulder-companion.
The folk of the Danemen. Dead is Æschere,
Yrmenlaf’s brother, older than he,
5 My true-hearted counsellor, trusty adviser,
Shoulder-companion, when fighting in battle
Our heads we protected, when troopers were clashing,
And heroes were dashing; such an earl should be ever, He was my ideal hero.
An erst-worthy atheling, as Æschere proved him.
10 The flickering death-spirit became in Heorot
His hand-to-hand murderer; I can not tell whither
The cruel one turned in the carcass exulting,
By cramming discovered. The quarrel she wreaked then, This horrible creature came to avenge Grendel’s death.
That last night igone Grendel thou killedst
15 In grewsomest manner, with grim-holding clutches,
Since too long he had lessened my liege-troop and wasted
My folk-men so foully. He fell in the battle
With forfeit of life, and another has followed,
A mighty crime-worker, her kinsman avenging,
20 And henceforth hath ‘stablished her hatred unyielding,
As it well may appear to many a liegeman,
Who mourneth in spirit the treasure-bestower,
Her heavy heart-sorrow; the hand is now lifeless
Which availed you in every wish that you cherished.
25 Land-people heard I, liegemen, this saying, I have heard my vassals speak of these two uncanny
Dwellers in halls, they had seen very often monsters who lived in the moors.
A pair of such mighty march-striding creatures,
Far-dwelling spirits, holding the moorlands:
One of them wore, as well they might notice,
30 The image of woman, the other one wretched
In guise of a man wandered in exile,
Except he was huger than any of earthmen;
Earth-dwelling people entitled him Grendel
In days of yore: they know not their father,
35 Whe’r ill-going spirits any were borne him
Ever before. They guard the wolf-coverts,
Lands inaccessible, wind-beaten nesses, They inhabit the most desolate and horrible places.
Fearfullest fen-deeps, where a flood from the mountains
’Neath mists of the nesses netherward rattles,
40 The stream under earth: not far is it henceward
Measured by mile-lengths that the mere-water standeth,
Which forests hang over, with frost-whiting covered,
A firm-rooted forest, the floods overshadow.
There ever at night one an ill-meaning portent
45 A fire-flood may see; ’mong children of men
None liveth so wise that wot of the bottom;
Though harassed by hounds the heath-stepper seek for,
Fly to the forest, firm-antlered he-deer, Even the hounded deer will not seek refuge in these
Spurred from afar, his spirit he yieldeth, uncanny regions.
50 His life on the shore, ere in he will venture
To cover his head. Uncanny the place is:
Thence upward ascendeth the surging of waters,
Wan to the welkin, when the wind is stirring
The weathers unpleasing, till the air groweth gloomy,
55 And the heavens lower. Now is help to be gotten
From thee and thee only! The abode thou know’st not, To thee only can I look for assistance.
The dangerous place where thou’rt able to meet with
The sin-laden hero: seek if thou darest!
For the feud I will fully fee thee with money,
60 With old-time treasure, as erstwhile I did thee,
With well-twisted jewels, if away thou shalt get thee.”


XXII. Beowulf Seeks Grendel’s Mother

Beowulf answered, Ecgtheow’s son: Beowulf exhorts the old king to arouse himself for action.
“Grieve not, O wise one! for each it is better,
His friend to avenge than with vehemence wail him;
Each of us must the end-day abide of
5 His earthly existence; who is able accomplish
Glory ere death! To battle-thane noble
Lifeless lying, ’tis at last most fitting.
Arise, O king, quick let us hasten
To look at the footprint of the kinsman of Grendel!
10 I promise thee this now: to his place he’ll escape not,
To embrace of the earth, nor to mountainous forest,
Nor to depths of the ocean, wherever he wanders.
Practice thou now patient endurance
Of each of thy sorrows, as I hope for thee soothly!”
15 Then up sprang the old one, the All-Wielder thanked he, Hrothgar rouses himself. His horse is brought.
Ruler Almighty, that the man had outspoken.
Then for Hrothgar a war-horse was decked with a bridle,
Curly-maned courser. The clever folk-leader
Stately proceeded: stepped then an earl-troop
20 Of linden-wood bearers. Her footprints were seen then They start on the track of the female monster.
Widely in wood-paths, her way o’er the bottoms,
Where she faraway fared o’er fen-country murky,
Bore away breathless the best of retainers
Who pondered with Hrothgar the welfare of country.
25 The son of the athelings then went o’er the stony,
Declivitous cliffs, the close-covered passes,
Narrow passages, paths unfrequented,
Nesses abrupt, nicker-haunts many;
One of a few of wise-mooded heroes,
30 He onward advanced to view the surroundings,
Till he found unawares woods of the mountain
O’er hoar-stones hanging, holt-wood unjoyful;
The water stood under, welling and gory.
’Twas irksome in spirit to all of the Danemen,
35 Friends of the Scyldings, to many a liegeman
Sad to be suffered, a sorrow unlittle The sight of Aeschere’s head causes them great sorrow.
To each of the earlmen, when to Æschere’s head they
Came on the cliff. The current was seething
With blood and with gore (the troopers gazed on it).
40 The horn anon sang the battle-song ready.
The troop were all seated; they saw ’long the water then
Many a serpent, mere-dragons wondrous The water is filled with serpents and sea-dragons.
Trying the waters, nickers a-lying
On the cliffs of the nesses, which at noonday full often
45 Go on the sea-deeps their sorrowful journey,
Wild-beasts and wormkind; away then they hastened
Hot-mooded, hateful, they heard the great clamor,
The war-trumpet winding. One did the Geat-prince One of them is killed by Beowulf.
Sunder from earth-joys, with arrow from bowstring,
50 From his sea-struggle tore him, that the trusty war-missile
Pierced to his vitals; he proved in the currents
Less doughty at swimming whom death had offcarried. The dead beast is a poor swimmer.
Soon in the waters the wonderful swimmer
Was straitened most sorely with sword-pointed boar-spears,
55 Pressed in the battle and pulled to the cliff-edge;
The liegemen then looked on the loath-fashioned stranger.
Beowulf donned then his battle-equipments, Beowulf prepares for a struggle with the monster.
Cared little for life; inlaid and most ample,
The hand-woven corslet which could cover his body,
60 Must the wave-deeps explore, that war might be powerless
To harm the great hero, and the hating one’s grasp might
Not peril his safety; his head was protected
By the light-flashing helmet that should mix with the bottoms,
Trying the eddies, treasure-emblazoned,
65 Encircled with jewels, as in seasons long past
The weapon-smith worked it, wondrously made it,
With swine-bodies fashioned it, that thenceforward no longer
Brand might bite it, and battle-sword hurt it.
And that was not least of helpers in prowess
70 That Hrothgar’s spokesman had lent him when straitened; He has Unferth’s sword in his hand.
And the hilted hand-sword was Hrunting entitled,
Old and most excellent ’mong all of the treasures;
Its blade was of iron, blotted with poison,
Hardened with gore; it failed not in battle
75 Any hero under heaven in hand who it brandished,
Who ventured to take the terrible journeys,
The battle-field sought; not the earliest occasion
That deeds of daring ’twas destined to ’complish.
Ecglaf’s kinsman minded not soothly, Unferth has little use for swords.
80 Exulting in strength, what erst he had spoken
Drunken with wine, when the weapon he lent to
A sword-hero bolder; himself did not venture
’Neath the strife of the currents his life to endanger,
To fame-deeds perform; there he forfeited glory,
85 Repute for his strength. Not so with the other
When he clad in his corslet had equipped him for battle.


XXIII. Beowulf’s Fight with Grendel’s Mother

Beowulf spake, Ecgtheow’s son:
“Recall now, oh, famous kinsman of Healfdene, Beowulf makes a parting speech to Hrothgar.
Prince very prudent, now to part I am ready,
Gold-friend of earlmen, what erst we agreed on,
5 Should I lay down my life in lending thee assistance,
When my earth-joys were over, thou wouldst evermore serve me If I fail, act as a kind liegelord to my thanes,
In stead of a father; my faithful thanemen,
My trusty retainers, protect thou and care for,
Fall I in battle: and, Hrothgar belovèd,
10 Send unto Higelac the high-valued jewels and send Higelac the jewels thou hast given me
Thou to me hast allotted. The lord of the Geatmen
May perceive from the gold, the Hrethling may see it
When he looks on the jewels, that a gem-giver found I I should like my king to know how generous a lord
Good over-measure, enjoyed him while able. I found thee to be.
15 And the ancient heirloom Unferth permit thou,
The famed one to have, the heavy-sword splendid
The hard-edgèd weapon; with Hrunting to aid me,
I shall gain me glory, or grim-death shall take me.”
The atheling of Geatmen uttered these words and Beowulf is eager for the fray.
20 Heroic did hasten, not any rejoinder
Was willing to wait for; the wave-current swallowed
The doughty-in-battle. Then a day’s-length elapsed ere He is a whole day reaching the bottom of the sea.
He was able to see the sea at its bottom.
Early she found then who fifty of winters
25 The course of the currents kept in her fury,
Grisly and greedy, that the grim one’s dominion
Some one of men from above was exploring. Grendel’s mother knows that someone has reached
Forth did she grab them, grappled the warrior her domains.
With horrible clutches; yet no sooner she injured
30 His body unscathèd: the burnie out-guarded,
That she proved but powerless to pierce through the armor,
The limb-mail locked, with loath-grabbing fingers.
The sea-wolf bare then, when bottomward came she,
The ring-prince homeward, that he after was powerless She grabs him, and bears him to her den.
35 (He had daring to do it) to deal with his weapons,
But many a mere-beast tormented him swimming,
Flood-beasts no few with fierce-biting tusks did Sea-monsters bite and strike him.
Break through his burnie, the brave one pursued they.
The earl then discovered he was down in some cavern
40 Where no water whatever anywise harmed him,
And the clutch of the current could come not anear him,
Since the roofed-hall prevented; brightness a-gleaming
Fire-light he saw, flashing resplendent.
The good one saw then the sea-bottom’s monster,
45 The mighty mere-woman; he made a great onset Beowulf attacks the mother of Grendel.
With weapon-of-battle, his hand not desisted
From striking, that war-blade struck on her head then
A battle-song greedy. The stranger perceived then
The sword would not bite, her life would not injure, The sword will not bite.
50 But the falchion failed the folk-prince when straitened:
Erst had it often onsets encountered,
Oft cloven the helmet, the fated one’s armor:
’Twas the first time that ever the excellent jewel
Had failed of its fame. Firm-mooded after,
55 Not heedless of valor, but mindful of glory,
Was Higelac’s kinsman; the hero-chief angry
Cast then his carved-sword covered with jewels
That it lay on the earth, hard and steel-pointed;
He hoped in his strength, his hand-grapple sturdy. The hero throws down all weapons, and again
60 So any must act whenever he thinketh trusts to his hand-grip.
To gain him in battle glory unending,
And is reckless of living. The lord of the War-Geats
(He shrank not from battle) seized by the shoulder
The mother of Grendel; then mighty in struggle
65 Swung he his enemy, since his anger was kindled,
That she fell to the floor. With furious grapple
She gave him requital early thereafter, Beowulf falls.
And stretched out to grab him; the strongest of warriors
Faint-mooded stumbled, till he fell in his traces,
70 Foot-going champion. Then she sat on the hall-guest The monster sists on him with drawn sword.
And wielded her war-knife wide-bladed, flashing,
For her son would take vengeance, her one only bairn.
His breast-armor woven bode on his shoulder; His armor saves his life.
It guarded his life, the entrance defended
75 ’Gainst sword-point and edges. Ecgtheow’s son there
Had fatally journeyed, champion of Geatmen,
In the arms of the ocean, had the armor not given,
Close-woven corslet, comfort and succor,
And had God most holy not awarded the victory, Grendel’s mother knows that someone has reached
80 All-knowing Lord; easily did heaven’s
Ruler most righteous arrange it with justice;
Uprose he erect ready for battle.


XXIV. Beowulf is Double-Conqueror

Then he saw mid the war-gems a weapon of victory, Beowulf grasps a giant-sword,
An ancient giant-sword, of edges a-doughty,
Glory of warriors: of weapons ’twas choicest,
Only ’twas larger than any man else was
5 Able to bear to the battle-encounter,
The good and splendid work of the giants.
He grasped then the sword-hilt, knight of the Scyldings,
Bold and battle-grim, brandished his ring-sword,
Hopeless of living, hotly he smote her,
10 That the fiend-woman’s neck firmly it grappled,
Broke through her bone-joints, the bill fully pierced her and fells the female monster.
Fate-cursèd body, she fell to the ground then:
The hand-sword was bloody, the hero exulted.
The brand was brilliant, brightly it glimmered,
15 Just as from heaven gemlike shineth
The torch of the firmament. He glanced ’long the building,
And turned by the wall then, Higelac’s vassal
Raging and wrathful raised his battle-sword
Strong by the handle. The edge was not useless
20 To the hero-in-battle, but he speedily wished to
Give Grendel requital for the many assaults he
Had worked on the West-Danes not once, but often,
When he slew in slumber the subjects of Hrothgar,
Swallowed down fifteen sleeping retainers
25 Of the folk of the Danemen, and fully as many
Carried away, a horrible prey.
He gave him requital, grim-raging champion,
When he saw on his rest-place weary of conflict Beowulf sees the body of Grendel, and cuts off his head.
Grendel lying, of life-joys bereavèd,
30 As the battle at Heorot erstwhile had scathed him;
His body far bounded, a blow when he suffered,
Death having seized him, sword-smiting heavy,
And he cut off his head then. Early this noticed
The clever carles who as comrades of Hrothgar
35 Gazed on the sea-deeps, that the surging wave-currents The waters are gory.
Were mightily mingled, the mere-flood was gory:
Of the good one the gray-haired together held converse,
The hoary of head, that they hoped not to see again Beowulf is given up for dead.
The atheling ever, that exulting in victory
40  He’d return there to visit the distinguished folk-ruler:
Then many concluded the mere-wolf had killed him.
The ninth hour came then. From the ness-edge departed
The bold-mooded Scyldings; the gold-friend of heroes
Homeward betook him. The strangers sat down then
45 Soul-sick, sorrowful, the sea-waves regarding:
They wished and yet weened not their well-loved friend-lord
To see any more. The sword-blade began then, The giant-sword melts.
The blood having touched it, contracting and shriveling
With battle-icicles; ’twas a wonderful marvel
50 That it melted entirely, likest to ice when
The Father unbindeth the bond of the frost and
Unwindeth the wave-bands, He who wieldeth dominion
Of times and of tides: a truth-firm Creator.
Nor took he of jewels more in the dwelling,
55 Lord of the Weders, though they lay all around him,
Than the head and the handle handsome with jewels;
The brand early melted, burnt was the weapon:
So hot was the blood, the strange-spirit poisonous
That in it did perish. He early swam off then The hero swims back to the realms of the day.
60 Who had bided in combat the carnage of haters,
Went up through the ocean; the eddies were cleansèd,
The spacious expanses, when the spirit from farland
His life put aside and this short-lived existence.
The seamen’s defender came swimming to land then
65 Doughty of spirit, rejoiced in his sea-gift,
The bulky burden which he bore in his keeping.
The excellent vassals advanced then to meet him,
To God they were grateful, were glad in their chieftain,
That to see him safe and sound was granted them.
70 From the high-minded hero, then, helmet and burnie
Were speedily loosened: the ocean was putrid,
The water ’neath welkin weltered with gore.
Forth did they fare, then, their footsteps retracing,
Merry and mirthful, measured the earth-way,
75 The highway familiar: men very daring
Bare then the head from the sea-cliff, burdening
Each of the earlmen, excellent-valiant.
Four of them had to carry with labor It takes four men to carry Grendel’s head on a spear.
The head of Grendel to the high towering gold-hall
80 Upstuck on the spear, till fourteen most-valiant
And battle-brave Geatmen came there going
Straight to the palace: the prince of the people
Measured the mead-ways, their mood-brave companion.
The atheling of earlmen entered the building,
85 Deed-valiant man, adorned with distinction,
Doughty shield-warrior, to address King Hrothgar:
Then hung by the hair, the head of Grendel
Was borne to the building, where beer-thanes were drinking,
Loth before earlmen and eke ’fore the lady:
90 The warriors beheld then a wonderful sight.


XXV. Beowulf Brings his Tropies–Hrothgar’s Gratitude

Beowulf spake, offspring of Ecgtheow: Beowulf relates his last exploit.
“Lo! we blithely have brought thee, bairn of Healfdene,
Prince of the Scyldings, these presents from ocean
Which thine eye looketh on, for an emblem of glory.
5 I came off alive from this, narrowly ’scaping:
In war ’neath the water the work with great pains I
Performed, and the fight had been finished quite nearly,
Had God not defended me. I failed in the battle
Aught to accomplish, aided by Hrunting,
10 Though that weapon was worthy, but the Wielder of earth-folk
Gave me willingly to see on the wall a God was fighting with me.
Heavy old hand-sword hanging in splendor
(He guided most often the lorn and the friendless),
That I swung as a weapon. The wards of the house then
15 I killed in the conflict (when occasion was given me).
Then the battle-sword burned, the brand that was lifted,
As the blood-current sprang, hottest of war-sweats;
Seizing the hilt, from my foes I offbore it;
I avenged as I ought to their acts of malignity,
20 The murder of Danemen. I then make thee this promise,
Thou’lt be able in Heorot careless to slumber Heorot is freed from monsters.
With thy throng of heroes and the thanes of thy people
Every and each, of greater and lesser,
And thou needest not fear for them from the selfsame direction
25 As thou formerly fearedst, oh, folk-lord of Scyldings,
End-day for earlmen.” To the age-hoary man then,
The gray-haired chieftain, the gold-fashioned sword-hilt, The famous sword is presented to Hrothgar.
Old-work of giants, was thereupon given;
Since the fall of the fiends, it fell to the keeping
30 Of the wielder of Danemen, the wonder-smith’s labor,
And the bad-mooded being abandoned this world then,
Opponent of God, victim of murder,
And also his mother; it went to the keeping
Of the best of the world-kings, where waters encircle,
35 Who the scot divided in Scylding dominion.
Hrothgar discoursed, the hilt he regarded, Hrothgar looks closely at the old sword.
The ancient heirloom where an old-time contention’s
Beginning was graven: the gurgling currents,
The flood slew thereafter the race of the giants,
40 They had proved themselves daring: that people was loth to
The Lord everlasting, through lash of the billows It has belonged to a race hateful to God.
The Father gave them final requital.
So in letters of rune on the clasp of the handle
Gleaming and golden, ’twas graven exactly,
45 Set forth and said, whom that sword had been made for,
Finest of irons, who first it was wrought for,
Wreathed at its handle and gleaming with serpents.
The wise one then said (silent they all were)
Son of old Healfdene: “He may say unrefuted Hrothgar praises Beowulf.
50 Who performs ’mid the folk-men fairness and truth
(The hoary old ruler remembers the past),
That better by birth is this bairn of the nobles!
Thy fame is extended through far-away countries,
Good friend Beowulf, o’er all of the races,
55 Thou holdest all firmly, hero-like strength with
Prudence of spirit. I’ll prove myself grateful
As before we agreed on; thou granted for long shalt
Become a great comfort to kinsmen and comrades,
A help unto heroes. Heremod became not Heremod’s career is again contrasted with Beowulf’s.
60 Such to the Scyldings, successors of Ecgwela;
He grew not to please them, but grievous destruction,
And diresome death-woes to Danemen attracted;
He slew in anger his table-companions,
Trustworthy counsellors, till he turned off lonely
65 From world-joys away, wide-famous ruler:
Though high-ruling heaven in hero-strength raised him,
In might exalted him, o’er men of all nations
Made him supreme, yet a murderous spirit
Grew in his bosom: he gave then no ring-gems
70 To the Danes after custom; endured he unjoyful A wretched failure of a king, to give no jewels to
Standing the straits from strife that was raging, his retainers.
Longsome folk-sorrow. Learn then from this,
Lay hold of virtue! Though laden with winters,
I have sung thee these measures. ’Tis a marvel to tell it,
75 How all-ruling God from greatness of spirit Hrothgar moralizes.
Giveth wisdom to children of men,
Manor and earlship: all things He ruleth.
He often permitteth the mood-thought of man of
The illustrious lineage to lean to possessions,
80 Allows him earthly delights at his manor,
A high-burg of heroes to hold in his keeping,
Maketh portions of earth-folk hear him,
And a wide-reaching kingdom so that, wisdom failing him,
He himself is unable to reckon its boundaries;
85 He liveth in luxury, little debars him,
Nor sickness nor age, no treachery-sorrow
Becloudeth his spirit, conflict nowhere,
No sword-hate, appeareth, but all of the world doth
Wend as he wisheth; the worse he knoweth not,
90 Till arrant arrogance inward pervading,
Waxeth and springeth, when the warder is sleeping,
The guard of the soul: with sorrows encompassed,
Too sound is his slumber, the slayer is near him,
Who with bow and arrow aimeth in malice.


XXVI. Hrothgar Moralizes.–Rest after Labor

“Then bruised in his bosom he with bitter-toothed missile
Is hurt ’neath his helmet: from harmful pollution A wounded spirit.
He is powerless to shield him by the wonderful mandates
Of the loath-cursèd spirit; what too long he hath holden
5 Him seemeth too small, savage he hoardeth,
Nor boastfully giveth gold-plated rings,
The fate of the future flouts and forgetteth
Since God had erst given him greatness no little,
Wielder of Glory. His end-day anear,
10 It afterward happens that the bodily-dwelling
Fleetingly fadeth, falls into ruins;
Another lays hold who doleth the ornaments,
The nobleman’s jewels, nothing lamenting,
Heedeth no terror. Oh, Beowulf dear,
15 Best of the heroes, from bale-strife defend thee,
And choose thee the better, counsels eternal;
Beware of arrogance, world-famous champion! Be not over proud: life is fleeting, and its
But a little-while lasts thy life-vigor’s fulness; strength soon wasteh away.
’Twill after hap early, that illness or sword-edge
20 Shall part thee from strength, or the grasp of the fire,
Or the wave of the current, or clutch of the edges,
Or flight of the war-spear, or age with its horrors,
Or thine eyes’ bright flashing shall fade into darkness:
’Twill happen full early, excellent hero,
25 That death shall subdue thee. So the Danes a half-century Hrothgar gives an account of his reign.
I held under heaven, helped them in struggles
’Gainst many a race in middle-earth’s regions,
With ash-wood and edges, that enemies none
On earth molested me. Lo! offsetting change, now,
30 Came to my manor, grief after joyance, Sorrow after joy.
When Grendel became my constant visitor,
Inveterate hater: I from that malice
Continually travailed with trouble no little.
Thanks be to God that I gained in my lifetime,
35 To the Lord everlasting, to look on the gory
Head with mine eyes, after long-lasting sorrow!
Go to the bench now, battle-adornèd
Joy in the feasting: of jewels in common
We’ll meet with many when morning appeareth.”
40 The Geatman was gladsome, ganged he immediately
To go to the bench, as the clever one bade him.
Then again as before were the famous-for-prowess,
Hall-inhabiters, handsomely banqueted,
Feasted anew. The night-veil fell then
45 Dark o’er the warriors. The courtiers rose then;
The gray-haired was anxious to go to his slumbers,
The hoary old Scylding. Hankered the Geatman,
The champion doughty, greatly, to rest him: Beowulf seeks rest.
An earlman early outward did lead him,
50 Fagged from his faring, from far-country springing,
Who for etiquette’s sake all of a liegeman’s
Needs regarded, such as seamen at that time
Were bounden to feel. The big-hearted rested;
The building uptowered, spacious and gilded,
55 The guest within slumbered, till the sable-clad raven
Blithely foreboded the beacon of heaven.
Then the bright-shining sun o’er the bottoms came going;
The warriors hastened, the heads of the peoples
Were ready to go again to their peoples,
60 The high-mooded farer would faraway thenceward The Geats prepare to leave Daneland.
Look for his vessel. The valiant one bade then,
Offspring of Ecglaf, off to bear Hrunting, Unferth asks Beowulf to accept his sword
To take his weapon, his well-beloved iron; as a gift. Beowulf thanks him.
He him thanked for the gift, saying good he accounted
65 The war-friend and mighty, nor chid he with words then
The blade of the brand: ’twas a brave-mooded hero.
When the warriors were ready, arrayed in their trappings,
The atheling dear to the Danemen advanced then
On to the dais, where the other was sitting,
70 Grim-mooded hero, greeted King Hrothgar.


XXVI. Sorrow at Parting.

Beowulf spake, Ecgtheow’s offspring: Beowulf’s farewell.
“We men of the water wish to declare now
Fared from far-lands, we’re firmly determined
To seek King Higelac. Here have we fitly
5 Been welcomed and feasted, as heart would desire it;
Good was the greeting. If greater affection
I am anywise able ever on earth to
Gain at thy hands, ruler of heroes,
Than yet I have done, I shall quickly be ready
10 For combat and conflict. O’er the course of the waters I shall be ever ready to aid thee.
Learn I that neighbors alarm thee with terror,
As haters did whilom, I hither will bring thee
For help unto heroes henchmen by thousands.
My liegelord will encourage me in aiding thee.
I know as to Higelac, the lord of the Geatmen, My liegelord will encourage me in aiding
15 Though young in years, he yet will permit me, thee.
By words and by works, ward of the people,
Fully to furnish thee forces and bear thee
My lance to relieve thee, if liegemen shall fail thee,
And help of my hand-strength; if Hrethric be treating,
20 Bairn of the king, at the court of the Geatmen,
He thereat may find him friends in abundance:
Faraway countries he were better to seek for
Who trusts in himself.” Hrothgar discoursed then,
Making rejoinder: “These words thou hast uttered
25 All-knowing God hath given thy spirit!
Ne’er heard I an earlman thus early in life O Beowulf, thou art wise beyond thy
More clever in speaking: thou’rt cautious of spirit, years.
Mighty of muscle, in mouth-answers prudent.
I count on the hope that, happen it ever
30 That missile shall rob thee of Hrethel’s descendant,
Edge-horrid battle, and illness or weapon
Deprive thee of prince, of people’s protector,
And life thou yet holdest, the Sea-Geats will never Should Higelac die, the Geats
Find a more fitting folk-lord to choose them, could find no better successor than
35 Gem-ward of heroes, than thou mightest prove thee, thou wouldst make.
If the kingdom of kinsmen thou carest to govern.
Thy mood-spirit likes me the longer the better,
Beowulf dear: thou hast brought it to pass that
To both these peoples peace shall be common,
40 To Geat-folk and Danemen, the strife be suspended, Thou hast healed the ancient breach
The secret assailings they suffered in yore-days; between our races.
And also that jewels be shared while I govern
The wide-stretching kingdom, and that many shall visit
Others o’er the ocean with excellent gift-gems:
45 The ring-adorned bark shall bring o’er the currents
Presents and love-gifts. This people I know
Tow’rd foeman and friend firmly established,
After ancient etiquette everywise blameless.”
Then the warden of earlmen gave him still farther,
50 Kinsman of Healfdene, a dozen of jewels, Parting gifts.
Bade him safely seek with the presents
His well-beloved people, early returning.
Then the noble-born king kissed the distinguished, Hrothgar kisses Beowulf, and weeps.
Dear-lovèd liegeman, the Dane-prince saluted him,
55 And claspèd his neck; tears from him fell,
From the gray-headed man: he two things expected,
Agèd and reverend, but rather the second,
That bold in council they’d meet thereafter.
The man was so dear that he failed to suppress the
60 Emotions that moved him, but in mood-fetters fastened
The long-famous hero longeth in secret The old king is deeply grieved to part
Deep in his spirit for the dear-beloved man with his benefactor.
Though not a blood-kinsman. Beowulf thenceward,
Gold-splendid warrior, walked o’er the meadows
65 Exulting in treasure: the sea-going vessel
Riding at anchor awaited its owner.
As they pressed on their way then, the present of Hrothgar
Was frequently referred to: a folk-king indeed that Giving liberally is the true proof of kingship.
Everyway blameless, till age did debar him
70 The joys of his might, which hath many oft injured.


XXVIII. The Homeward Journey.–The Two Queens

Then the band of very valiant retainers
Came to the current; they were clad all in armor,
In link-woven burnies. The land-warder noticed The coast-guard again.
The return of the earlmen, as he erstwhile had seen them;
5 Nowise with insult he greeted the strangers
From the naze of the cliff, but rode on to meet them;
Said the bright-armored visitors vesselward traveled
Welcome to Weders. The wide-bosomed craft then
Lay on the sand, laden with armor,
10 With horses and jewels, the ring-stemmèd sailer:
The mast uptowered o’er the treasure of Hrothgar.
To the boat-ward a gold-bound brand he presented, Beowulf gives the guard a handsome sword.
That he was afterwards honored on the ale-bench more highly
As the heirloom’s owner. Set he out on his vessel,
15 To drive on the deep, Dane-country left he.
Along by the mast then a sea-garment fluttered,
A rope-fastened sail. The sea-boat resounded,
The wind o’er the waters the wave-floater nowise
Kept from its journey; the sea-goer traveled,
20 The foamy-necked floated forth o’er the currents,
The well-fashioned vessel o’er the ways of the ocean,
Till they came within sight of the cliffs of the Geatmen, The Geats see their own land again.
The well-known headlands. The wave-goer hastened
Driven by breezes, stood on the shore.
25 Prompt at the ocean, the port-ward was ready, The port-warden is anxiously looking for them.
Who long in the past outlooked in the distance,
At water’s-edge waiting well-lovèd heroes;
He bound to the bank then the broad-bosomed vessel
Fast in its fetters, lest the force of the waters
30 Should be able to injure the ocean-wood winsome.
Bade he up then take the treasure of princes,
Plate-gold and fretwork; not far was it thence
To go off in search of the giver of jewels:
Hrethel’s son Higelac at home there remaineth,
35 Himself with his comrades close to the sea-coast.
The building was splendid, the king heroic,
Great in his hall, Hygd very young was,
Fine-mooded, clever, though few were the winters Hygd, the noble queen of Higelac, lavish
That the daughter of Hæreth had dwelt in the borough; of gifts.
40 But she nowise was cringing nor niggard of presents,
Of ornaments rare, to the race of the Geatmen.
Thrytho nursed anger, excellent5 folk-queen, Offa’s consort, Thrytho, is contrasted
Hot-burning hatred: no hero whatever with Hygd.
’Mong household companions, her husband excepted
45 Dared to adventure to look at the woman
With eyes in the daytime;6 but he knew that death-chains She is a terror to all save her husband.
Hand-wreathed were wrought him: early thereafter,
When the hand-strife was over, edges were ready,
That fierce-raging sword-point had to force a decision,
50 Murder-bale show. Such no womanly custom
For a lady to practise, though lovely her person,
That a weaver-of-peace, on pretence of anger
A belovèd liegeman of life should deprive.
Soothly this hindered Heming’s kinsman;
55 Other ale-drinking earlmen asserted
That fearful folk-sorrows fewer she wrought them,
Treacherous doings, since first she was given
Adorned with gold to the war-hero youthful,
For her origin honored, when Offa’s great palace
60 O’er the fallow flood by her father’s instructions
She sought on her journey, where she afterwards fully,
Famed for her virtue, her fate on the king’s-seat
Enjoyed in her lifetime, love did she hold with
The ruler of heroes, the best, it is told me,
65 Of all of the earthmen that oceans encompass,
Of earl-kindreds endless; hence Offa was famous
Far and widely, by gifts and by battles,
Spear-valiant hero; the home of his fathers
He governed with wisdom, whence Eomær did issue
70 For help unto heroes, Heming’s kinsman,
Grandson of Garmund, great in encounters.


XXIX. Beowulf and Higelac.

Then the brave one departed, his band along with him,
Seeking the sea-shore, the sea-marches treading, Beowulf and his party seek Higelac.
The wide-stretching shores. The world-candle glimmered,
The sun from the southward; they proceeded then onward,
5 Early arriving where they heard that the troop-lord,
Ongentheow’s slayer, excellent, youthful
Folk-prince and warrior was distributing jewels,
Close in his castle. The coming of Beowulf
Was announced in a message quickly to Higelac,
10 That the folk-troop’s defender forth to the palace
The linden-companion alive was advancing,
Secure from the combat courtward a-going.
The building was early inward made ready
For the foot-going guests as the good one had ordered.
15 He sat by the man then who had lived through the struggle, Beowulf sists by his liegelord.
Kinsman by kinsman, when the king of the people
Had in lordly language saluted the dear one,
In words that were formal. The daughter of Hæreth
Coursed through the building, carrying mead-cups: Queen Hygd receives the heroes.
20 She loved the retainers, tendered the beakers
To the high-minded Geatmen. Higelac ’gan then
Pleasantly plying his companion with questions
In the high-towering palace. A curious interest Higelac is greatly interested in Beowulf’s
Tormented his spirit, what meaning to see in adventures.
25 The Sea-Geats’ adventures: “Beowulf worthy,
How throve your journeying, when thou thoughtest suddenly Give an account of thy adventures, Beowulf.
Far o’er the salt-streams to seek an encounter,
A battle at Heorot? Hast bettered for Hrothgar,
The famous folk-leader, his far-published sorrows
30 Any at all? In agony-billows
I mused upon torture, distrusted the journey My suspense has been great.
Of the belovèd liegeman; I long time did pray thee
By no means to seek out the murderous spirit,
To suffer the South-Danes themselves to decide on
35 Grappling with Grendel. To God I am thankful
To be suffered to see thee safe from thy journey.”
Beowulf answered, bairn of old Ecgtheow: Beowulf narrations his adventures.
“’Tis hidden by no means, Higelac chieftain,
From many of men, the meeting so famous,
40 What mournful moments of me and of Grendel
Were passed in the place where he pressing affliction
On the Victory-Scyldings scathefully brought,
Anguish forever; that all I avengèd,
So that any under heaven of the kinsmen of Grendel
45 Needeth not boast of that cry-in-the-morning, Grendel’s kindred have no cause to boast.
Who longest liveth of the loth-going kindred,
Encompassed by moorland. I came in my journey
To the royal ring-hall, Hrothgar to greet there:
Soon did the famous scion of Healfdene, Hrothgar received me very cordially.
50 When he understood fully the spirit that led me,
Assign me a seat with the son of his bosom.
The troop was in joyance; mead-glee greater
’Neath arch of the ether not ever beheld I
’Mid hall-building holders. The highly-famed queen,
55 Peace-tie of peoples, oft passed through the building, The queen also showed up no little honor.
Cheered the young troopers; she oft tendered a hero
A beautiful ring-band, ere she went to her sitting.
Oft the daughter of Hrothgar in view of the courtiers Hrothgar’s lovely daughter.
To the earls at the end the ale-vessel carried,
60 Whom Freaware I heard then hall-sitters title,
When nail-adorned jewels she gave to the heroes:
Gold-bedecked, youthful, to the glad son of Froda She is betrothed to Ingeld, in order to unite the
Her faith has been plighted; the friend of the Scyldings, Danes and Heathobards.
The guard of the kingdom, hath given his sanction,
65 And counts it a vantage, for a part of the quarrels,
A portion of hatred, to pay with the woman.
Somewhere not rarely, when the ruler has fallen,
The life-taking lance relaxeth its fury
For a brief breathing-spell, though the bride be charming!


XXX. Beowulf Narrates his Adventures to Higelac.

“It well may discomfit the prince of the Heathobards
And each of the thanemen of earls that attend him,
When he goes to the building escorting the woman,
That a noble-born Daneman the knights should be feasting:
5 There gleam on his person the leavings of elders
Hard and ring-bright, Heathobards’ treasure,
While they wielded their arms, till they misled to the battle
Their own dear lives and belovèd companions.
He saith at the banquet who the collar beholdeth,
10 An ancient ash-warrior who earlmen’s destruction
Clearly recalleth (cruel his spirit),
Sadly beginneth sounding the youthful
Thane-champion’s spirit through the thoughts of his bosom,
War-grief to waken, and this word-answer speaketh:
15 ‘Art thou able, my friend, to know when thou seest it Ingeld is stirred up to break the truce.
The brand which thy father bare to the conflict
In his latest adventure, ’neath visor of helmet,
The dearly-loved iron, where Danemen did slay him,
And brave-mooded Scyldings, on the fall of the heroes,
20 (When vengeance was sleeping) the slaughter-place wielded?
E’en now some man of the murderer’s progeny
Exulting in ornaments enters the building,
Boasts of his blood-shedding, offbeareth the jewel
Which thou shouldst wholly hold in possession!’
25 So he urgeth and mindeth on every occasion
With woe-bringing words, till waxeth the season
When the woman’s thane for the works of his father,
The bill having bitten, blood-gory sleepeth,
Fated to perish; the other one thenceward
30 ’Scapeth alive, the land knoweth thoroughly.
Then the oaths of the earlmen on each side are broken,
When rancors unresting are raging in Ingeld
And his wife-love waxeth less warm after sorrow.
So the Heathobards’ favor not faithful I reckon,
35 Their part in the treaty not true to the Danemen,
Their friendship not fast. I further shall tell thee
More about Grendel, that thou fully mayst hear, Having made these preliminary statements,
Ornament-giver, what afterward came from I will now tell thee of Grendel, the monster.
The hand-rush of heroes. When heaven’s bright jewel
40 O’er earthfields had glided, the stranger came raging,
The horrible night-fiend, us for to visit,
Where wholly unharmed the hall we were guarding.
To Hondscio happened a hopeless contention, Hondscio fell first.
Death to the doomed one, dead he fell foremost,
45 Girded war-champion; to him Grendel became then,
To the vassal distinguished, a tooth-weaponed murderer,
The well-beloved henchman’s body all swallowed.
Not the earlier off empty of hand did
The bloody-toothed murderer, mindful of evils,
50 Wish to escape from the gold-giver’s palace,
But sturdy of strength he strove to outdo me,
Hand-ready grappled. A glove was suspended
Spacious and wondrous, in art-fetters fastened,
Which was fashioned entirely by touch of the craftman
55 From the dragon’s skin by the devil’s devices:
He down in its depths would do me unsadly
One among many, deed-doer raging,
Though sinless he saw me; not so could it happen
When I in my anger upright did stand.
60 ’Tis too long to recount how requital I furnished
For every evil to the earlmen’s destroyer;
’Twas there, my prince, that I proudly distinguished I reflected honor upon my people.
Thy land with my labors. He left and retreated,
He lived his life a little while longer:
65 Yet his right-hand guarded his footstep in Heorot,
And sad-mooded thence to the sea-bottom fell he,
Mournful in mind. For the might-rush of battle
The friend of the Scyldings, with gold that was plated, King Hrothgar lavished gifts upon me.
With ornaments many, much requited me,
70 When daylight had dawned, and down to the banquet
We had sat us together. There was chanting and joyance:
The age-stricken Scylding asked many questions
And of old-times related; oft light-ringing harp-strings,
Joy-telling wood, were touched by the brave one;
75 Now he uttered measures, mourning and truthful,
Then the large-hearted land-king a legend of wonder
Truthfully told us. Now troubled with years
The age-hoary warrior afterward began to The old king is sad over the loss of his youthful
Mourn for the might that marked him in youth-days; vigor.
80 His breast within boiled, when burdened with winters
Much he remembered. From morning till night then
We joyed us therein as etiquette suffered,
Till the second night season came unto earth-folk.
Then early thereafter, the mother of Grendel
85 Was ready for vengeance, wretched she journeyed; Grendel’s mother.
Her son had death ravished, the wrath of the Geatmen.
The horrible woman avengèd her offspring,
And with mighty mainstrength murdered a hero.
There the spirit of Æschere, agèd adviser, Æschere falls prey to her vengeance.
90 Was ready to vanish; nor when morn had lightened
Were they anywise suffered to consume him with fire,
Folk of the Danemen, the death-weakened hero,
Nor the belovèd liegeman to lay on the pyre;
She the corpse had offcarried in the clutch of the foeman She suffered not his body to be burned,
95 ’Neath mountain-brook’s flood. To Hrothgar ’twas saddest but ate it.
Of pains that ever had preyed on the chieftain;
By the life of thee the land-prince then me
Besought very sadly, in sea-currents’ eddies
To display my prowess, to peril my safety,
100 Might-deeds accomplish; much did he promise.
I found then the famous flood-current’s cruel, I sought the creature in her den,
Horrible depth-warder. A while unto us two
Hand was in common; the currents were seething
With gore that was clotted, and Grendel’s fierce mother’s
105 Head I offhacked in the hall at the bottom and hewed her head off.
With huge-reaching sword-edge, hardly I wrested
My life from her clutches; not doomed was I then,
But the warden of earlmen afterward gave me Jewels were freely bestowed upon me.
Jewels in quantity, kinsman of Healfdene.


XXXI. Gift-giving is Mutual.

“So the belovèd land-prince lived in decorum;
I had missed no rewards, no meeds of my prowess,
But he gave me jewels, regarding my wishes,
Healfdene his bairn; I’ll bring them to thee, then,
5 Atheling of earlmen, offer them gladly. All my gifts I lay at thy feet.
And still unto thee is all my affection:
But few of my folk-kin find I surviving
But thee, dear Higelac!” Bade he in then to carry
The boar-image, banner, battle-high helmet,
10 Iron-gray armor, the excellent weapon,
In song-measures said: “This suit-for-the-battle This armor I have belonged of yore to
Hrothgar presented me, bade me expressly, Heregar.
Wise-mooded atheling, thereafter to tell thee
The whole of its history, said King Heregar owned it,
15 Dane-prince for long: yet he wished not to give then
The mail to his son, though dearly he loved him,
Hereward the hardy. Hold all in joyance!”
I heard that there followed hard on the jewels
Two braces of stallions of striking resemblance,
20 Dappled and yellow; he granted him usance
Of horses and treasures. So a kinsman should bear him,
No web of treachery weave for another,
Nor by cunning craftiness cause the destruction
Of trusty companion. Most precious to Higelac,
25 The bold one in battle, was the bairn of his sister, Higelac loves his nephew Beowulf.
And each unto other mindful of favors.
I am told that to Hygd he proffered the necklace, Beowulf gives Hygd the necklace that
Wonder-gem rare that Wealhtheow gave him, Wealhtheow had given him.
The troop-leader’s daughter, a trio of horses
30 Slender and saddle-bright; soon did the jewel
Embellish her bosom, when the beer-feast was over.
So Ecgtheow’s bairn brave did prove him,
War-famous man, by deeds that were valiant, Beowulf is famous.
He lived in honor, belovèd companions
35 Slew not carousing; his mood was not cruel,
But by hand-strength hugest of heroes then living
The brave one retained the bountiful gift that
The Lord had allowed him. Long was he wretched,
So that sons of the Geatmen accounted him worthless,
40 And the lord of the liegemen loth was to do him
Mickle of honor, when mead-cups were passing;
They fully believed him idle and sluggish,
An indolent atheling: to the honor-blest man there He is requited for the slights suffered
Came requital for the cuts he had suffered. in earlier days.
45 The folk-troop’s defender bade fetch to the building
The heirloom of Hrethel, embellished with gold,
So the brave one enjoined it; there was jewel no richer Higelac overwhelms the conqueror with gifts.
In the form of a weapon ’mong Geats of that era;
In Beowulf’s keeping he placed it and gave him
50 Seven of thousands, manor and lordship.
Common to both was land ’mong the people,
Estate and inherited rights and possessions,
To the second one specially spacious dominions,
To the one who was better. It afterward happened
55 In days that followed, befell the battle-thanes,
After Higelac’s death, and when Heardred was murdered After Heardred’s death, Beowulf becomes
With weapons of warfare ’neath well-covered targets, king.
When valiant battlemen in victor-band sought him,
War-Scylfing heroes harassed the nephew
60 Of Hereric in battle. To Beowulf’s keeping
Turned there in time extensive dominions:
He fittingly ruled them a fifty of winters He rules the Geats fifty years.
(He a man-ruler wise was, manor-ward old) till
A certain one ’gan, on gloom-darkening nights, a
65 Dragon, to govern, who guarded a treasure, The fire-drake.
A high-rising stone-cliff, on heath that was grayish:
A path ’neath it lay, unknown unto mortals.
Some one of earthmen entered the mountain,
The heathenish hoard laid hold of with ardor;
70 *          *          *          *          *          *         *
*          *          *          *          *          *         *
*          *          *          *          *          *         *
*          *          *          *          *          *         *
*          *          *          *          *          *         *


XXXII. The Hoard and the Dragon.

*          *          *          *          *          *         *
He sought of himself who sorely did harm him,
But, for need very pressing, the servant of one of
The sons of the heroes hate-blows evaded,
5 Seeking for shelter and the sin-driven warrior
Took refuge within there. He early looked in it,
*          *          *          *          *          *         *
*          *          *          *          *          *         *
*    *    *    *    *  when the onset surprised him,
10 He a gem-vessel saw there: many of suchlike The hoard.
Ancient ornaments in the earth-cave were lying,
As in days of yore some one of men of
Illustrious lineage, as a legacy monstrous,
There had secreted them, careful and thoughtful,
15 Dear-valued jewels. Death had offsnatched them,
In the days of the past, and the one man moreover
Of the flower of the folk who fared there the longest,
Was fain to defer it, friend-mourning warder,
A little longer to be left in enjoyment
20 Of long-lasting treasure. A barrow all-ready
Stood on the plain the stream-currents nigh to,
New by the ness-edge, unnethe of approaching:
The keeper of rings carried within a
Ponderous deal of the treasure of nobles,
25 Of gold that was beaten, briefly he spake then:
“Hold thou, O Earth, now heroes no more may, The ring-giver bewails the loss of retainers.
The earnings of earlmen. Lo! erst in thy bosom
Worthy men won them; war-death hath ravished,
Perilous life-bale, all my warriors,
30 Liegemen belovèd, who this life have forsaken,
Who hall-pleasures saw. No sword-bearer have I,
And no one to burnish the gold-plated vessel,
The high-valued beaker: my heroes are vanished.
The hardy helmet behung with gilding
35 Shall be reaved of its riches: the ring-cleansers slumber
Who were charged to have ready visors-for-battle,
And the burnie that bided in battle-encounter
O’er breaking of war-shields the bite of the edges
Moulds with the hero. The ring-twisted armor,
40 Its lord being lifeless, no longer may journey
Hanging by heroes; harp-joy is vanished,
The rapture of glee-wood, no excellent falcon
Swoops through the building, no swift-footed charger
Grindeth the gravel. A grievous destruction
45 No few of the world-folk widely hath scattered!”
So, woful of spirit one after all
Lamented mournfully, moaning in sadness
By day and by night, till death with its billows
Dashed on his spirit. Then the ancient dusk-scather
50 Found the great treasure standing all open,
He who flaming and fiery flies to the barrows,
Naked war-dragon, nightly escapeth
Encompassed with fire; men under heaven
Widely beheld him. ’Tis said that he looks for
55 The hoard in the earth, where old he is guarding
The heathenish treasure; he’ll be nowise the better.
So three-hundred winters the waster of peoples The dragon meets his match.
Held upon earth that excellent hoard-hall,
Till the forementioned earlman angered him bitterly:
60 The beat-plated beaker he bare to his chieftain
And fullest remission for all his remissness
Begged of his liegelord. Then the hoard was discovered,
The treasure was taken, his petition was granted
The lorn-mooded liegeman. His lord regarded
65 The old-work of earth-folk—’twas the earliest occasion. The hero plunders the dragon’s den
When the dragon awoke, the strife was renewed there;
He snuffed ’long the stone then, stout-hearted found he
The footprint of foeman; too far had he gone
With cunning craftiness close to the head of
70 The fire-spewing dragon. So undoomed he may ’scape from
Anguish and exile with ease who possesseth
The favor of Heaven. The hoard-warden eagerly
Searched o’er the ground then, would meet with the person
That caused him sorrow while in slumber reclining:
75 Gleaming and wild he oft went round the cavern,
All of it outward; not any of earthmen
Was seen in that desert. Yet he joyed in the battle,
Rejoiced in the conflict: oft he turned to the barrow,
Sought for the gem-cup; this he soon perceived then
80 That some man or other had discovered the gold, The dragon perceives that some one has
The famous folk-treasure. Not fain did the hoard-ward disturbed his treasure.
Wait until evening; then the ward of the barrow
Was angry in spirit, the loathèd one wished to
Pay for the dear-valued drink-cup with fire.
85 Then the day was done as the dragon would have it,
He no longer would wait on the wall, but departed
Fire-impelled, flaming. Fearful the start was The dragon is infuriated.
To earls in the land, as it early thereafter
To their giver-of-gold was grievously ended.


XXXIII. Brave though Aged–Reminiscences

The stranger began then to vomit forth fire,
To burn the great manor; the blaze then glimmered The dragon spits fire.
For anguish to earlmen, not anything living
Was the hateful air-goer willing to leave there.
5 The war of the worm widely was noticed,
The feud of the foeman afar and anear,
How the enemy injured the earls of the Geatmen,
Harried with hatred: back he hied to the treasure,
To the well-hidden cavern ere the coming of daylight.
10 He had circled with fire the folk of those regions,
With brand and burning; in the barrow he trusted,
In the wall and his war-might: the weening deceived him.
Then straight was the horror to Beowulf published, Beowulf hears of the havoc wrought
Early forsooth, that his own native homestead, by the dragon.
15 The best of buildings, was burning and melting,
Gift-seat of Geatmen. ’Twas a grief to the spirit
Of the good-mooded hero, the greatest of sorrows:
The wise one weened then that wielding his kingdom
’Gainst the ancient commandments, he had bitterly angered He fears that Heaven is punishing him for
20 The Lord everlasting: with lorn meditations some crime.
His bosom welled inward, as was nowise his custom.
The fire-spewing dragon fully had wasted
The fastness of warriors, the water-land outward,
The manor with fire. The folk-ruling hero,
25 Prince of the Weders, was planning to wreak him.
The warmen’s defender bade them to make him,
Earlmen’s atheling, an excellent war-shield
Wholly of iron: fully he knew then He orders an iron shield to be made from
That wood from the forest was helpless to aid him, him, wood is useless.
30 Shield against fire. The long-worthy ruler
Must live the last of his limited earth-days,
Of life in the world and the worm along with him,
Though he long had been holding hoard-wealth in plenty.
Then the ring-prince disdained to seek with a war-band, He determines to fight alone.
35 With army extensive, the air-going ranger;
He felt no fear of the foeman’s assaults and
He counted for little the might of the dragon,
His power and prowess: for previously dared he
A heap of hostility, hazarded dangers, Beowulf’s early triumphs referred to
40 War-thane, when Hrothgar’s palace he cleansèd,
Conquering combatant, clutched in the battle
The kinsmen of Grendel, of kindred detested.
’Twas of hand-fights not least where Higelac was slaughtered, Higelac’s death recalled.
When the king of the Geatmen with clashings of battle,
45 Friend-lord of folks in Frisian dominions,
Offspring of Hrethrel perished through sword-drink,
With battle-swords beaten; thence Beowulf came then
On self-help relying, swam through the waters;
He bare on his arm, lone-going, thirty
50 Outfits of armor, when the ocean he mounted.
The Hetwars by no means had need to be boastful
Of their fighting afoot, who forward to meet him
Carried their war-shields: not many returned from
The brave-mooded battle-knight back to their homesteads.
55 Ecgtheow’s bairn o’er the bight-courses swam then,
Lone-goer lorn to his land-folk returning,
Where Hygd to him tendered treasure and kingdom,
Rings and dominion: her son she not trusted, Heardred’s lack of capacity to rule.
To be able to keep the kingdom devised him
60 ’Gainst alien races, on the death of King Higelac.
Yet the sad ones succeeded not in persuading the atheling Beowulf’s tact and delicacy recalled.
In any way ever, to act as a suzerain
To Heardred, or promise to govern the kingdom;
Yet with friendly counsel in the folk he sustained him,
65 Gracious, with honor, till he grew to be older,
Wielded the Weders. Wide-fleeing outlaws, Reference is here made to a visit which Beowulf
Ohthere’s sons, sought him o’er the waters: receives from Eanmund and Eadgils,
They had stirred a revolt ’gainst the helm of the Scylfings, why they come is not known.
The best of the sea-kings, who in Swedish dominions
70 Distributed treasure, distinguished folk-leader.
’Twas the end of his earth-days; injury fatal
By swing of the sword he received as a greeting,
Offspring of Higelac; Ongentheow’s bairn
Later departed to visit his homestead,
75 When Heardred was dead; let Beowulf rule them,
Govern the Geatmen: good was that folk-king.


XIV. Beowulf Seeks the Dragon.–Beowulf’s Reminiscences.

He planned requital for the folk-leader’s ruin
In days thereafter, to Eadgils the wretched
Becoming an enemy. Ohthere’s son then
Went with a war-troop o’er the wide-stretching currents
5 With warriors and weapons: with woe-journeys cold he
After avenged him, the king’s life he took.
So he came off uninjured from all of his battles, Beowulf has been preserved through
Perilous fights, offspring of Ecgtheow, many perils.
From his deeds of daring, till that day most momentous
10 When he fate-driven fared to fight with the dragon.
With eleven companions the prince of the Geatmen With eleven comrades, he seeks the dragon.
Went lowering with fury to look at the fire-drake:
Inquiring he’d found how the feud had arisen,
Hate to his heroes; the highly-famed gem-vessel
15 Was brought to his keeping through the hand of th’ informer.
That in the throng was thirteenth of heroes, A guide leads the way, but
That caused the beginning of conflict so bitter,
Captive and wretched, must sad-mooded thenceward
Point out the place: he passed then unwillingly
20 To the spot where he knew of the notable cavern, very reluctantly.
The cave under earth, not far from the ocean,
The anger of eddies, which inward was full of
Jewels and wires: a warden uncanny,
Warrior weaponed, wardered the treasure,
25 Old under earth; no easy possession
For any of earth-folk access to get to.
Then the battle-brave atheling sat on the naze-edge,
While the gold-friend of Geatmen gracious saluted
His fireside-companions: woe was his spirit,
30 Death-boding, wav’ring; Weird very near him,
Who must seize the old hero, his soul-treasure look for,
Dragging aloof his life from his body:
Not flesh-hidden long was the folk-leader’s spirit.
Beowulf spake, Ecgtheow’s son:
35 “I survived in my youth-days many a conflict, Beowulf’s retrospect.
Hours of onset: that all I remember.
I was seven-winters old when the jewel-prince took me,
High-lord of heroes, at the hands of my father,
Hrethel the hero-king had me in keeping,
40 Gave me treasure and feasting, our kinship remembered; Hrethel took me when I was seven.
Not ever was I any less dear to him
Knight in the boroughs, than the bairns of his household, He treated me as a son.
Herebald and Hæthcyn and Higelac mine.
To the eldest unjustly by acts of a kinsman
45 Was murder-bed strewn, since him Hæthcyn from horn-bow
His sheltering chieftain shot with an arrow, One of the brothers accidentally kills another.
Erred in his aim and injured his kinsman,
One brother the other, with blood-sprinkled spear:
’Twas a feeless fight, finished in malice, No fee could compound for such a calamity.
50 Sad to his spirit; the folk-prince however
Had to part from existence with vengeance untaken.
So to hoar-headed hero ’tis heavily crushing [A parallel case is supposed.]
To live to see his son as he rideth
Young on the gallows: then measures he chanteth,
55 A song of sorrow, when his son is hanging
For the raven’s delight, and aged and hoary
He is unable to offer any assistance.
Every morning his offspring’s departure
Is constant recalled: he cares not to wait for
60 The birth of an heir in his borough-enclosures,
Since that one through death-pain the deeds hath experienced.
He heart-grieved beholds in the house of his son the
Wine-building wasted, the wind-lodging places
Reaved of their roaring; the riders are sleeping,
65 The knights in the grave; there’s no sound of the harp-wood,
Joy in the yards, as of yore were familiar.


XXXV. Reminiscences (continued).–Beowulf’s Last Battle

“He seeks then his chamber, singeth a woe-song
One for the other; all too extensive
Seemed homesteads and plains. So the helm of the Weders
Mindful of Herebald heart-sorrow carried, Hrethel grieves for Herebald.
5 Stirred with emotion, nowise was able
To wreak his ruin on the ruthless destroyer:
He was unable to follow the warrior with hatred,
With deeds that were direful, though dear he not held him.
10 He gave up glee, God-light elected;
He left to his sons, as the man that is rich does,
His land and fortress, when from life he departed.
Then was crime and hostility ’twixt Swedes and Geatmen, Strife between Swedes and Geats.
O’er wide-stretching water warring was mutual,
15 Burdensome hatred, when Hrethel had perished,
And Ongentheow’s offspring were active and valiant,
Wished not to hold to peace oversea, but
Round Hreosna-beorh often accomplished
Cruelest massacre. This my kinsman avengèd,
20 The feud and fury, as ’tis found on inquiry,
Though one of them paid it with forfeit of life-joys,
With price that was hard: the struggle became then Hæthcyn’s fall at Ravenswood.
Fatal to Hæthcyn, lord of the Geatmen.
Then I heard that at morning one brother the other
25 With edges of irons egged on to murder,
Where Ongentheow maketh onset on Eofor:
The helmet crashed, the hoary-haired Scylfing
Sword-smitten fell, his hand then remembered
Feud-hate sufficient, refused not the death-blow.
30 The gems that he gave me, with jewel-bright sword I I requited him for the jewels he gave me.
’Quited in contest, as occasion was offered:
Land he allowed me, life-joy at homestead,
Manor to live on. Little he needed
From Gepids or Danes or in Sweden to look for
35 Trooper less true, with treasure to buy him;
’Mong foot-soldiers ever in front I would hie me,
Alone in the vanguard, and evermore gladly
Warfare shall wage, while this weapon endureth
That late and early often did serve me
40 When I proved before heroes the slayer of Dæghrefn, Beowulf refers to his having slain Dæghrefn.
Knight of the Hugmen: he by no means was suffered
To the king of the Frisians to carry the jewels,
The breast-decoration; but the banner-possessor
Bowed in the battle, brave-mooded atheling.
45 No weapon was slayer, but war-grapple broke then
The surge of his spirit, his body destroying.
Now shall weapon’s edge make war for the treasure,
And hand and firm-sword.” Beowulf spake then,
Boast-words uttered—the latest occasion:
50 “I braved in my youth-days battles unnumbered; He boasts of his youthful prowess, and
Still am I willing the struggle to look for, declares himself still fearless.
Fame-deeds perform, folk-warden prudent,
If the hateful despoiler forth from his cavern
Seeketh me out!” Each of the heroes,
55 Helm-bearers sturdy, he thereupon greeted
Belovèd co-liegemen—his last salutation: His last salutations.
“No brand would I bear, no blade for the dragon,
Wist I a way my word-boast to ’complish
Else with the monster, as with Grendel I did it;
60 But fire in the battle hot I expect there,
Furious flame-burning: so I fixed on my body
Target and war-mail. The ward of the barrow
I’ll not flee from a foot-length, the foeman uncanny.
At the wall ’twill befall us as Fate decreeth,
65 Each one’s Creator. I am eager in spirit, Let Fate decide between us.
With the wingèd war-hero to away with all boasting.
Bide on the barrow with burnies protected,
Bide on the barrow with burnies protected,
Earls in armor, which of us two may better Wait ye here till the battle is over.
70 ’Tis no matter of yours, and man cannot do it,
But me and me only, to measure his strength with
The monster of malice, might-deeds to ’complish.
I with prowess shall gain the gold, or the battle,
Direful death-woe will drag off your ruler!”
75 The mighty champion rose by his shield then,
Brave under helmet, in battle-mail went he
’Neath steep-rising stone-cliffs, the strength he relied on
Of one man alone: no work for a coward.
Then he saw by the wall who a great many battles
80 Had lived through, most worthy, when foot-troops collided,
Stone-arches standing, stout-hearted champion, The place of strife is described.
Saw a brook from the barrow bubbling out thenceward:
The flood of the fountain was fuming with war-flame:
Not nigh to the hoard, for season the briefest
85 Could he brave, without burning, the abyss that was yawning,
The drake was so fiery. The prince of the Weders
Caused then that words came from his bosom,
So fierce was his fury; the firm-hearted shouted:
His battle-clear voice came in resounding
90 ’Neath the gray-colored stone. Stirred was his hatred,
The hoard-ward distinguished the speech of a man; Beowulf calls out under the stone arches.
Time was no longer to look out for friendship.
The breath of the monster issued forth first,
Vapory war-sweat, out of the stone-cave:
95 The earth re-echoed. The earl ’neath the barrow The terrible encounter.
Lifted his shield, lord of the Geatmen,
Tow’rd the terrible stranger: the ring-twisted creature’s
Heart was then ready to seek for a struggle.
The excellent battle-king first brandished his weapon, Beowulf brandishes his sword,
100 The ancient heirloom, of edges unblunted,
To the death-planners twain was terror from other.
The lord of the troopers intrepidly stood then and stands against his shield.
’Gainst his high-rising shield, when the dragon coiled him
Quickly together: in corslet he bided. The dragon coils himself.
105 He went then in blazes, bended and striding,
Hasting him forward. His life and body
The targe well protected, for time-period shorter
Than wish demanded for the well-renowned leader,
Where he then for the first day was forced to be victor,
110 Famous in battle, as Fate had not willed it.
The lord of the Geatmen uplifted his hand then,
Smiting the fire-drake with sword that was precious,
That bright on the bone the blade-edge did weaken,
Bit more feebly than his folk-leader needed,
115 Burdened with bale-griefs. Then the barrow-protector,
When the sword-blow had fallen, was fierce in his spirit, The dragon rages
Flinging his fires, flamings of battle
Gleamed then afar: the gold-friend of Weders
Boasted no conquests, his battle-sword failed him
120 Naked in conflict, as by no means it ought to, Beowulf’s sword fails him.
Long-trusty weapon. ’Twas no slight undertaking
That Ecgtheow’s famous offspring would leave
The drake-cavern’s bottom; he must live in some region
Other than this, by the will of the dragon,
125 As each one of earthmen existence must forfeit.
’Twas early thereafter the excellent warriors
Met with each other. Anew and afresh The combat is renewed.
The hoard-ward took heart (gasps heaved then his bosom):
Sorrow he suffered encircled with fire The great hero is reduced to extremities.
130 Who the people erst governed. His companions by no means
Were banded about him, bairns of the princes,
With valorous spirit, but they sped to the forest, His comrades flee!
Seeking for safety. The soul-deeps of one were
Ruffled by care: kin-love can never Blood is thicker than water.
135 Aught in him waver who well doth consider.


XXXVI. Wiglaf the Trusty.–Beowulf is Deserted by Friends and by Sword.

The son of Weohstan was Wiglaf entitled,
Shield-warrior precious, prince of the Scylfings, Wiglaf remains true—the ideal Teutonic
Ælfhere’s kinsman: he saw his dear liegelord liegeman.
Enduring the heat ’neath helmet and visor.
5 Then he minded the holding that erst he had given him,
The Wægmunding warriors’ wealth-blessèd homestead, Wiglaf recalls Beowulf’s generosity.
Each of the folk-rights his father had wielded;
He was hot for the battle, his hand seized the target,
The yellow-bark shield, he unsheathed his old weapon,
10 Which was known among earthmen as the relic of Eanmund,
Ohthere’s offspring, whom, exiled and friendless,
Weohstan did slay with sword-edge in battle,
And carried his kinsman the clear-shining helmet,
The ring-made burnie, the old giant-weapon
15 That Onela gave him, his boon-fellow’s armor,
Ready war-trappings: he the feud did not mention,
Though he’d fatally smitten the son of his brother.
Many a half-year held he the treasures,
The bill and the burnie, till his bairn became able,
20 Like his father before him, fame-deeds to ’complish;
Then he gave him ’mong Geatmen a goodly array of
Weeds for his warfare; he went from life then
Old on his journey. ’Twas the earliest time then
That the youthful champion might charge in the battle This is Wiglaf’s first battle as liegeman
25 Aiding his liegelord; his spirit was dauntless. of Beowulf.
Nor did kinsman’s bequest quail at the battle:
This the dragon discovered on their coming together.
Wiglaf uttered many a right-saying,
Said to his fellows, sad was his spirit:
30 “I remember the time when, tasting the mead-cup, Wiglaf appeals to the pride of the cowards.
We promised in the hall the lord of us all
Who gave us these ring-treasures, that this battle-equipment,
Swords and helmets, we’d certainly quite him,
Should need of such aid ever befall him:
35 In the war-band he chose us for this journey spontaneously, How we have forfeited our liegelord’s
Stirred us to glory and gave me these jewels, confidence!
Since he held and esteemed us trust-worthy spearmen,
Hardy helm-bearers, though this hero-achievement
Our lord intended alone to accomplish,
40 Ward of his people, for most of achievements,
Doings audacious, he did among earth-folk.
The day is now come when the ruler of earthmen
Needeth the vigor of valiant heroes: Our lord is in sore need of us.
Let us wend us towards him, the war-prince to succor,
45 While the heat yet rageth, horrible fire-fight.
God wot in me, ’tis mickle the liefer I would rather die than go home with
The blaze should embrace my body and eat it out my suzerain.
With my treasure-bestower. Meseemeth not proper
To bear our battle-shields back to our country,
50 ’Less first we are able to fell and destroy the
Long-hating foeman, to defend the life of
The prince of the Weders. Well do I know ’tisn’t
Earned by his exploits, he only of Geatmen Surely he does not deserve to die alone.
Sorrow should suffer, sink in the battle:
55 Brand and helmet to us both shall be common,
Shield-cover, burnie.” Through the bale-smoke he stalked then,
Went under helmet to the help of his chieftain,
Briefly discoursing: “Beowulf dear, Wiglaf reminds Beowulf of his youthful
Perform thou all fully, as thou formerly saidst, boasts.
60 In thy youthful years, that while yet thou livedst
Thou wouldst let thine honor not ever be lessened.
Thy life thou shalt save, mighty in actions,
Atheling undaunted, with all of thy vigor;
I’ll give thee assistance.” The dragon came raging, The monster advances on them.
65 Wild-mooded stranger, when these words had been uttered
(’Twas the second occasion), seeking his enemies,
Men that were hated, with hot-gleaming fire-waves;
With blaze-billows burned the board to its edges:
The fight-armor failed then to furnish assistance
70 To the youthful spear-hero: but the young-agèd stripling
Quickly advanced ’neath his kinsman’s war-target,
Since his own had been ground in the grip of the fire.
Then the warrior-king was careful of glory, Beowulf strikes at the dragon.
He soundly smote with sword-for-the-battle,
75 That it stood in the head by hatred driven;
Nægling was shivered, the old and iron-made
Brand of Beowulf in battle deceived him. His sword fails him.
’Twas denied him that edges of irons were able
To help in the battle; the hand was too mighty
80 Which every weapon, as I heard on inquiry,
Outstruck in its stroke, when to struggle he carried
The wonderful war-sword: it waxed him no better.
Then the people-despoiler—third of his onsets— The dragon advances on Beowulf again.
Fierce-raging fire-drake, of feud-hate was mindful,
85 Charged on the strong one, when chance was afforded,
Heated and war-grim, seized on his neck
With teeth that were bitter; he bloody did wax with
Soul-gore seething; sword-blood in waves boiled.


XXXVII. The Fatal Struggle.–Beowulf’s Last Moments

Then I heard that at need of the king of the people
The upstanding earlman exhibited prowess, Wiglaf defends Beowulf.
Vigor and courage, as suited his nature;
He his head did not guard, but the high-minded liegeman’s
5 Hand was consumed, when he succored his kinsman,
So he struck the strife-bringing strange-comer lower,
Earl-thane in armor, that in went the weapon
Gleaming and plated, that ’gan then the fire
Later to lessen. The liegelord himself then Beowulf draws his knife,
10 Retained his consciousness, brandished his war-knife,
Battle-sharp, bitter, that he bare on his armor:
The Weder-lord cut the worm in the middle. and cuts the dragon.
They had felled the enemy (life drove out then
Puissant prowess), the pair had destroyed him,
15 Land-chiefs related: so a liegeman should prove him,
A thaneman when needed. To the prince ’twas the last of
His era of conquest by his own great achievements,
The latest of world-deeds. The wound then began Beowulf’s wound swells and burns.
Which the earth-dwelling dragon erstwhile had wrought him
20 To burn and to swell. He soon then discovered
That bitterest bale-woe in his bosom was raging,
Poison within. The atheling advanced then,
That along by the wall, he prudent of spirit He sits down exhausted.
Might sit on a settle; he saw the giant-work,
25 How arches of stone strengthened with pillars
The earth-hall eternal inward supported.
Then the long-worthy liegeman laved with his hand the
Far-famous chieftain, gory from sword-edge, Wiglaf bathes his lord’s head.
Refreshing the face of his friend-lord and ruler,
30 Sated with battle, unbinding his helmet.
Beowulf answered, of his injury spake he,
His wound that was fatal (he was fully aware
He had lived his allotted life-days enjoying
The pleasures of earth; then past was entirely
35 His measure of days, death very near):
“My son I would give now my battle-equipments, Beowulf regrets that he has no son.
Had any of heirs been after me granted,
Along of my body. This people I governed
Fifty of winters: no king ’mong my neighbors
40 Dared to encounter me with comrades-in-battle,
Try me with terror. The time to me ordered
I bided at home, mine own kept fitly,
Sought me no snares, swore me not many
Oaths in injustice. Joy over all this I can rejoice in a well-spent life.
45 I’m able to have, though ill with my death-wounds;
Hence the Ruler of Earthmen need not charge me
With the killing of kinsmen, when cometh my life out
Forth from my body. Fare thou with haste now
To behold the hoard ’neath the hoar-grayish stone, Bring me the hoard, Wiglaf, that my dying
50 Well-lovèd Wiglaf, now the worm is a-lying, eyes may be refreshed by a sight of it.
Sore-wounded sleepeth, disseized of his treasure.
Go thou in haste that treasures of old I,
Gold-wealth may gaze on, together see lying
The ether-bright jewels, be easier able,
55 Having the heap of hoard-gems, to yield my
Life and the land-folk whom long I have governed.”


XXXVIII. Wiglaf Plunders the Dragon’s Den.–Beowulf’s Death.

Then heard I that Wihstan’s son very quickly,
These words being uttered, heeded his liegelord Wiglaf fulfils his lord’s behest.
Wounded and war-sick, went in his armor,
His well-woven ring-mail, ’neath the roof of the barrow.
5 Then the trusty retainer treasure-gems many
Victorious saw, when the seat he came near to,
Gold-treasure sparkling spread on the bottom,
Wonder on the wall, and the worm-creature’s cavern,
The ancient dawn-flier’s, vessels a-standing,
10 Cups of the ancients of cleansers bereavèd,
Robbed of their ornaments: there were helmets in numbers,
Old and rust-eaten, arm-bracelets many,
Artfully woven. Wealth can easily,
Gold on the sea-bottom, turn into vanity
15 Each one of earthmen, arm him who pleaseth!
And he saw there lying an all-golden banner
High o’er the hoard, of hand-wonders greatest,
Linkèd with lacets: a light from it sparkled,
That the floor of the cavern he was able to look on,
20 To examine the jewels. Sight of the dragon The dragon is not there.
Not any was offered, but edge offcarried him.
Then I heard that the hero the hoard-treasure plundered, Wiglaf bears the hoard away.
The giant-work ancient reaved in the cavern,
Bare on his bosom the beakers and platters,
25 As himself would fain have it, and took off the standard,
The brightest of beacons; the bill had erst injured
(Its edge was of iron), the old-ruler’s weapon,
Him who long had watched as ward of the jewels,
Who fire-terror carried hot for the treasure,
30 Rolling in battle, in middlemost darkness,
Till murdered he perished. The messenger hastened,
Not loth to return, hurried by jewels:
Curiosity urged him if, excellent-mooded,
Alive he should find the lord of the Weders
35 Mortally wounded, at the place where he left him.
’Mid the jewels he found then the famous old chieftain,
His liegelord belovèd, at his life’s-end gory:
He thereupon ’gan to lave him with water,
Till the point of his word piercèd his breast-hoard.
40 Beowulf spake (the gold-gems he noticed),
The old one in sorrow: “For the jewels I look on Beowulf is rejoiced to see the jewels.
Thanks do I utter for all to the Ruler,
Wielder of Worship, with words of devotion,
The Lord everlasting, that He let me such treasures
45 Gain for my people ere death overtook me.
Since I’ve bartered the agèd life to me granted
For treasure of jewels, attend ye henceforward
The wants of the war-thanes; I can wait here no longer. He desires to be held in memory by
The battle-famed bid ye to build them a grave-hill, his people.
50 Bright when I’m burned, at the brim-current’s limit;
As a memory-mark to the men I have governed,
Aloft it shall tower on Whale’s-Ness uprising,
That earls of the ocean hereafter may call it
Beowulf’s barrow, those who barks ever-dashing
55 From a distance shall drive o’er the darkness of waters.”
The bold-mooded troop-lord took from his neck then The hero’s last gift
The ring that was golden, gave to his liegeman,
The youthful war-hero, his gold-flashing helmet,
His collar and war-mail, bade him well to enjoy them:
60 “Thou art latest left of the line of our kindred,
Of Wægmunding people: Weird hath offcarried and last words.
All of my kinsmen to the Creator’s glory,
Earls in their vigor: I shall after them fare.”
’Twas the aged liegelord’s last-spoken word in
65 His musings of spirit, ere he mounted the fire,
The battle-waves burning: from his bosom departed
His soul to seek the sainted ones’ glory.


XXXIX. The Dead Foes.–Wiglaf’s Bitter Taunts.

It had wofully chanced then the youthful retainer
To behold on earth the most ardent-belovèd Wiglaf is sorely grieved to see his lord
At his life-days’ limit, lying there helpless. look so un-warlike.
The slayer too lay there, of life all bereavèd,
5 Horrible earth-drake, harassed with sorrow:
The round-twisted monster was permitted no longer The dragon has plundered his last hoard.
To govern the ring-hoards, but edges of war-swords
Mightily seized him, battle-sharp, sturdy
Leavings of hammers, that still from his wounds
10 The flier-from-farland fell to the earth
Hard by his hoard-house, hopped he at midnight
Not e’er through the air, nor exulting in jewels
Suffered them to see him: but he sank then to earthward
Through the hero-chief’s handwork. I heard sure it throve then
15 But few in the land of liegemen of valor, Few warriors dared to face the monster.
Though of every achievement bold he had proved him,
To run ’gainst the breath of the venomous scather,
Or the hall of the treasure to trouble with hand-blows,
If he watching had found the ward of the hoard-hall
20 On the barrow abiding. Beowulf’s part of
The treasure of jewels was paid for with death;
Each of the twain had attained to the end of
Life so unlasting. Not long was the time till The cowardly thanes come out of the thicket.
The tardy-at-battle returned from the thicket,
25 The timid truce-breakers ten all together,
Who durst not before play with the lances
In the prince of the people’s pressing emergency;
But blushing with shame, with shields they betook them,
With arms and armor where the old one was lying: They are ashamed of their desertion.
30 They gazed upon Wiglaf. He was sitting exhausted,
Foot-going fighter, not far from the shoulders
Of the lord of the people, would rouse him with water;
No whit did it help him; though he hoped for it keenly,
He was able on earth not at all in the leader
35 Life to retain, and nowise to alter
The will of the Wielder; the World-Ruler’s power
Would govern the actions of each one of heroes,
As yet He is doing. From the young one forthwith then Wiglaf is ready to excoriate them.
Could grim-worded greeting be got for him quickly
40 Whose courage had failed him. Wiglaf discoursed then,
Weohstan his son, sad-mooded hero,
Looked on the hated: “He who soothness will utter He begins to taunt them.
Can say that the liegelord who gave you the jewels,
The ornament-armor wherein ye are standing,
45 When on ale-bench often he offered to hall-men
Helmet and burnie, the prince to his liegemen,
As best upon earth he was able to find him,—
That he wildly wasted his war-gear undoubtedly Surely our lord wasted his armor on
When battle o’ertook him. The troop-king no need had poltroons.
50 To glory in comrades; yet God permitted him,
Victory-Wielder, with weapon unaided He, however, got along without you
Himself to avenge, when vigor was needed.
I life-protection but little was able
To give him in battle, and I ’gan, notwithstanding,
55 Helping my kinsman (my strength overtaxing): With some aid, I could have saved our
He waxed the weaker when with weapon I smote on liegelord
My mortal opponent, the fire less strongly
Flamed from his bosom. Too few of protectors
Came round the king at the critical moment.
60 Now must ornament-taking and weapon-bestowing, Gift-giving is over with your people:
Home-joyance all, cease for your kindred, the ring-lord is dead.
Food for the people; each of your warriors
Must needs be bereavèd of rights that he holdeth
In landed possessions, when faraway nobles
65 Shall learn of your leaving your lord so basely,
The dastardly deed. Death is more pleasant What is life without honor?
To every earlman than infamous life is!”


XL. The Messenger of Death.

Then he charged that the battle be announced at the hedge
Up o’er the cliff-edge, where the earl-troopers bided Wiglaf sends the news of Beowulf’s
The whole of the morning, mood-wretched sat them, death to liegemen near by.
Bearers of battle-shields, both things expecting,
5 The end of his lifetime and the coming again of
The liegelord belovèd. Little reserved he
Of news that was known, who the ness-cliff did travel,
But he truly discoursed to all that could hear him:
“Now the free-giving friend-lord of the folk of the Weders, The messenger speaks.
10 The folk-prince of Geatmen, is fast in his death-bed,
By the deeds of the dragon in death-bed abideth;
Along with him lieth his life-taking foeman
Slain with knife-wounds: he was wholly unable
To injure at all the ill-planning monster
15 With bite of his sword-edge. Wiglaf is sitting, Wiglaf sits by our dead lord.
Offspring of Wihstan, up over Beowulf,
Earl o’er another whose end-day hath reached him,
Head-watch holdeth o’er heroes unliving,
For friend and for foeman. The folk now expecteth Our lord’s death will lead to attacks
20 A season of strife when the death of the folk-king from our old foes.
To Frankmen and Frisians in far-lands is published.
The war-hatred waxed warm ’gainst the Hugmen,
When Higelac came with an army of vessels
Faring to Friesland, where the Frankmen in battle Higelac’s death recalled.
25 Humbled him and bravely with overmight ’complished
That the mail-clad warrior must sink in the battle,
Fell ’mid his folk-troop: no fret-gems presented
The atheling to earlmen; aye was denied us
Merewing’s mercy. The men of the Swedelands
30 For truce or for truth trust I but little;
But widely ’twas known that near Ravenswood Ongentheow
Sundered Hæthcyn the Hrethling from life-joys, Hæthcyn’s fall referred to.
When for pride overweening the War-Scylfings first did
Seek the Geatmen with savage intentions.
35 Early did Ohthere’s age-laden father,
Old and terrible, give blow in requital,
Killing the sea-king, the queen-mother rescued,
The old one his consort deprived of her gold,
Onela’s mother and Ohthere’s also,
40 And then followed the feud-nursing foemen till hardly,
Reaved of their ruler, they Ravenswood entered.
Then with vast-numbered forces he assaulted the remnant,
Weary with wounds, woe often promised
The livelong night to the sad-hearted war-troop:
45 Said he at morning would kill them with edges of weapons,
Some on the gallows for glee to the fowls.
Aid came after to the anxious-in-spirit
At dawn of the day, after Higelac’s bugle
And trumpet-sound heard they, when the good one proceeded
50 And faring followed the flower of the troopers.


XLI. The Messenger’s Retrospect.

“The blood-stainèd trace of Swedes and Geatmen,
The death-rush of warmen, widely was noticed, The messenger continues, and refers to
How the folks with each other feud did awaken.  the feuds of Swedes and Geats.
The worthy one went then1 with well-beloved comrades,
5 Old and dejected to go to the fastness,
Ongentheo earl upward then turned him;
Of Higelac’s battle he’d heard on inquiry,
The exultant one’s prowess, despaired of resistance,
With earls of the ocean to be able to struggle,
10 ’Gainst sea-going sailors to save the hoard-treasure,
His wife and his children; he fled after thenceward
Old ’neath the earth-wall. Then was offered pursuance
To the braves of the Swedemen, the banner to Higelac.
They fared then forth o’er the field-of-protection,
15 When the Hrethling heroes hedgeward had thronged them.
Then with edges of irons was Ongentheow driven,
The gray-haired to tarry, that the troop-ruler had to
Suffer the power solely of Eofor:
Wulf then wildly with weapon assaulted him, Wulf wounds Ongentheow.
20 Wonred his son, that for swinge of the edges
The blood from his body burst out in currents,
Forth ’neath his hair. He feared not however,
Gray-headed Scylfing, but speedily quited
The wasting wound-stroke with worse exchange,
25 When the king of the thane-troop thither did turn him: Ongentheow gives a stout blow in return.
The wise-mooded son of Wonred was powerless
To give a return-blow to the age-hoary man,
But his head-shielding helmet first hewed he to pieces,
That flecked with gore perforce he did totter,
30 Fell to the earth; not fey was he yet then,
But up did he spring though an edge-wound had reached him.
Then Higelac’s vassal, valiant and dauntless, Eofor smites Ongentheow fiercely
When his brother lay dead, made his broad-bladed weapon,
Giant-sword ancient, defence of the giants,
35 Bound o’er the shield-wall; the folk-prince succumbed then, Ongentheow is slain.
Shepherd of people, was pierced to the vitals.
There were many attendants who bound up his kinsman,
Carried him quickly when occasion was granted
That the place of the slain they were suffered to manage.
40 This pending, one hero plundered the other,
His armor of iron from Ongentheow ravished,
His hard-sword hilted and helmet together;
The old one’s equipments he carried to Higelac. Eofor takes the old king’s war-gear to Higelac.
He the jewels received, and rewards ’mid the troopers
45 Graciously promised, and so did accomplish:
The king of the Weders requited the war-rush,
Hrethel’s descendant, when home he repaired him,
To Eofor and Wulf with wide-lavished treasures, Higelac rewards the brothers.
To each of them granted a hundred of thousands
50 In land and rings wrought out of wire: His gifts were beyond cavil.
None upon mid-earth needed to twit him
With the gifts he gave them, when glory they conquered;
And to Eofor then gave he his one only daughter, To Eofor he also gives his only daughter
The honor of home, as an earnest of favor. in marriage.
55 That’s the feud and hatred—as ween I ’twill happen—
The anger of earthmen, that earls of the Swedemen
Will visit on us, when they hear that our leader
Lifeless is lying, he who longtime protected
His hoard and kingdom ’gainst hating assailers
60 Who on the fall of the heroes defended of yore
The deed-mighty Scyldings, did for the troopers
What best did avail them, and further moreover
Hero-deeds ’complished. Now is haste most fitting, It is time for us to pay the last marks
That the lord of liegemen we look upon yonder, of respect to our lord.
65 And that one carry on journey to death-pyre
Who ring-presents gave us. Not aught of it all
Shall melt with the brave one—there’s a mass of bright jewels,
Gold beyond measure, grewsomely purchased
And ending it all ornament-rings too
70 Bought with his life; these fire shall devour,
Flame shall cover, no earlman shall wear
A jewel-memento, nor beautiful virgin
Have on her neck rings to adorn her,
But wretched in spirit bereavèd of gold-gems
75 She shall oft with others be exiled and banished,
Since the leader of liegemen hath laughter forsaken,
Mirth and merriment. Hence many a war-spear
Cold from the morning shall be clutched in the fingers,
Heaved in the hand, no harp-music’s sound shall
80 Waken the warriors, but the wan-coated raven
Fain over fey ones freely shall gabble,
Shall say to the eagle how he sped in the eating,
When, the wolf his companion, he plundered the slain.”
So the high-minded hero was rehearsing these stories
85 Loathsome to hear; he lied as to few of
Weirds and of words. All the war-troop arose then, The warriors go sadly to look at Beowulf’s
’Neath the Eagle’s Cape sadly betook them, lifeless body.
Weeping and woful, the wonder to look at.
They saw on the sand then soulless a-lying,
90 His slaughter-bed holding, him who rings had given them
In days that were done; then the death-bringing moment
Was come to the good one, that the king very warlike,
Wielder of Weders, with wonder-death perished.
First they beheld there a creature more wondrous,
95 The worm on the field, in front of them lying, They also see the dragon.
The foeman before them: the fire-spewing dragon,
Ghostly and grisly guest in his terrors,
Was scorched in the fire; as he lay there he measured
Fifty of feet; came forth in the night-time
100 To rejoice in the air, thereafter departing
To visit his den; he in death was then fastened,
He would joy in no other earth-hollowed caverns.
There stood round about him beakers and vessels,
Dishes were lying and dear-valued weapons,
105 With iron-rust eaten, as in earth’s mighty bosom
A thousand of winters there they had rested:
That mighty bequest then with magic was guarded, The hoard was under a magic spell.
Gold of the ancients, that earlman not any
The ring-hall could touch, save Ruling-God only,
110 Sooth-king of Vict’ries gave whom He wished to
(He is earth-folk’s protector) to open the treasure, God alone could give access to it.
E’en to such among mortals as seemed to Him proper.


XLII. Wiglaf’s Sad Story.–The Hoard Carried Off.

Then ’twas seen that the journey prospered him little
Who wrongly within had the ornaments hidden
Down ’neath the wall. The warden erst slaughtered
Some few of the folk-troop: the feud then thereafter
5 Was hotly avengèd. ’Tis a wonder where,
When the strength-famous trooper has attained to the end of
Life-days allotted, then no longer the man may
Remain with his kinsmen where mead-cups are flowing.
So to Beowulf happened when the ward of the barrow,
10 Assaults, he sought for: himself had no knowledge
How his leaving this life was likely to happen.
So to doomsday, famous folk-leaders down did
Call it with curses—who ’complished it there—
That that man should be ever of ill-deeds convicted,
15 Confined in foul-places, fastened in hell-bonds,
Punished with plagues, who this place should e’er ravage.
He cared not for gold: rather the Wielder’s
Favor preferred he first to get sight of.
Wiglaf discoursed then, Wihstan his son: Wiglaf addresses his comrades.
20 “Oft many an earlman on one man’s account must
Sorrow endure, as to us it hath happened.
The liegelord belovèd we could little prevail on,
Kingdom’s keeper, counsel to follow,
Not to go to the guardian of the gold-hoard, but let him
25 Lie where he long was, live in his dwelling
Till the end of the world. Met we a destiny
Hard to endure: the hoard has been looked at,
Been gained very grimly; too grievous the fate that
The prince of the people pricked to come thither.
30 I was therein and all of it looked at,
The building’s equipments, since access was given me,
Not kindly at all entrance permitted
Within under earth-wall. Hastily seized I He tells them of Beowulf’s last moments.
And held in my hands a huge-weighing burden
35 Of hoard-treasures costly, hither out bare them
To my liegelord belovèd: life was yet in him,
And consciousness also; the old one discoursed then
Much and mournfully, commanded to greet you,
Bade that remembering the deeds of your friend-lord Beowulf’s dying request.
40 Ye build on the fire-hill of corpses a lofty
Burial-barrow, broad and far-famous,
As ’mid world-dwelling warriors he was widely most honored
While he reveled in riches. Let us rouse us and hasten
Again to see and seek for the treasure,
45 The wonder ’neath wall. The way I will show you,
That close ye may look at ring-gems sufficient
And gold in abundance. Let the bier with promptness
Fully be fashioned, when forth we shall come,
And lift we our lord, then, where long he shall tarry,
50 Well-beloved warrior, ’neath the Wielder’s protection.”
Then the son of Wihstan bade orders be given, Wiglaf charges them to build a funeral-pyre.
Mood-valiant man, to many of heroes,
Holders of homesteads, that they hither from far,
Leaders of liegemen, should look for the good one
55 With wood for his pyre: “The flame shall now swallow
(The wan fire shall wax) the warriors’ leader
Who the rain of the iron often abided,
When, sturdily hurled, the storm of the arrows
Leapt o’er linden-wall, the lance rendered service,
60 Furnished with feathers followed the arrow.”
Now the wise-mooded son of Wihstan did summon
The best of the braves from the band of the ruler
Seven together; ’neath the enemy’s roof he He takes seven thanes, and enters the den.
Went with the seven; one of the heroes
65 Who fared at the front, a fire-blazing torch-light
Bare in his hand. No lot then decided
Who that hoard should havoc, when hero-earls saw it
Lying in the cavern uncared-for entirely,
Rusting to ruin: they rued then but little
70 That they hastily hence hauled out the treasure,
The dear-valued jewels; the dragon eke pushed they, They push the dragon over the wall.
The worm o’er the wall, let the wave-currents take him,
The waters enwind the ward of the treasures.
There wounden gold on a wain was uploaded, The hoard is laid on a wain.
75 A mass unmeasured, the men-leader off then,
The hero hoary, to Whale’s-Ness was carried.


XLIII. The Burning of Beowulf.

The folk of the Geatmen got him then ready
A pile on the earth strong for the burning, Beowulf’s pyre.
Behung with helmets, hero-knights’ targets,
And bright-shining burnies, as he begged they should have them;
5 Then wailing war-heroes their world-famous chieftain,
Their liegelord beloved, laid in the middle.
Soldiers began then to make on the barrow The funeral-flame.
The largest of dead-fires: dark o’er the vapor
The smoke-cloud ascended, the sad-roaring fire,
10 Mingled with weeping (the wind-roar subsided)
Till the building of bone it had broken to pieces,
Hot in the heart. Heavy in spirit
They mood-sad lamented the men-leader’s ruin;
And mournful measures the much-grieving widow
15 *          *          *          *          *          *         *
*          *          *          *          *          *         *
*          *          *          *          *          *         *
*          *          *          *          *          *         *
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20 *          *          *          *          *          *         *
The men of the Weders made accordingly The Weders carry out their lord’s last request.
A hill on the height, high and extensive,
Of sea-going sailors to be seen from a distance,
And the brave one’s beacon built where the fire was,
25 In ten-days’ space, with a wall surrounded it,
As wisest of world-folk could most worthily plan it.
They placed in the barrow rings and jewels,
All such ornaments as erst in the treasure
War-mooded men had won in possession:
30 The earnings of earlmen to earth they entrusted,
The gold to the dust, where yet it remaineth
As useless to mortals as in foregoing eras.
’Round the dead-mound rode then the doughty-in-battle,
Bairns of all twelve of the chiefs of the people,
35 More would they mourn, lament for their ruler, They mourn for their lord, and sing his praises.
Speak in measure, mention him with pleasure,
Weighed his worth, and his warlike achievements
Mightily commended, as ’tis meet one praise his
Liegelord in words and love him in spirit,
40 When forth from his body he fares to destruction.
So lamented mourning the men of the Geats,
Fond-loving vassals, the fall of their lord,
Said he was kindest of kings under heaven, An ideal king.
Gentlest of men, most winning of manner,
45 Friendliest to folk-troops and fondest of honor.

Source Text: 

Hall, Leslie, trans. Beowulf: An Anglo-Saxon Poem. D.C. Heath & Co. Publishers, 1892, licensed under no known copyright.




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An Open Companion to Early British Literature Copyright © 2019 by Allegra Villarreal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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